Category Archives: Online

MicroRNAs as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Heart Failure

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0016

Heart failure still represents a real challenge both in everyday practice and research, due to the complex issues related to its pathogenesis and management. Humoral biomarkers have emerged in the last decades as useful tools in the diagnosis, risk stratification and guiding the treatment of heart failure. These molecules are related to different pathological and adaptive processes, like myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation and cardiac remodeling, their most widespread representatives being the natriuretic peptides (e.g. NT-proBNP). The role of altered gene expression and transcription as the basis of myocardial structural and functional changes in heart failure is largely recognized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs which have a major role in post-transcriptional gene expression by interfering with messenger RNA molecules. Our short review summarizes the molecular biology of miRNAs and their possible role as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure. Furthermore, the therapeutical perspectives conferred by these molecules are also presented.
Keywords: miRNA, biomarkers, heart failure

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Postoperative Lymphorrhagia – a Possible Complication Following Cephalic Duodenopancreatectomy

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0013

Surgery associated with lymphadenectomy may sometimes result in a lymphorrhagia, which usually resolves spontaneously within a few days, sometimes becoming a refractory complication to the treatment. In the case of large flows, particular attention should be paid to hydroelectrolytic and protein losses. We present the case of a patient with persistent lymphorrhagia after a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy for a pancreatic head tumor. From the 5th postoperative day, the patient had a milky-like secretion on the subhepatic drainage tube. The discharge rate was variable, between 500 and 1500 ml per day, requiring parenteral administration of amino acids, plasma and electrolyte solutions. The postoperative progression was slowly favorable, with the patient discharge on the 25th day following surgery. There are several treatment options for a lymphorrhagia following an extended lymphadenectomy, from intensive parenteral therapy to peritoneal-venous shunt or ligation of the lymphatic vessel responsible for the production of lymphorrhagia. In this case the conservative treatment had a favorable result.

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The Complication Rates of Oral Anticoagulation Therapy in Deep Venous Thrombosis

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0012

The objective of the current study is to evaluate the complication rates (embolic and hemorrhagic events) in deep venous thrombosis (DVT) patients on different types of oral anticoagulation therapy (OAC): direct oral anticoagulant therapy and vitamin K antagonist therapy.
Methods: A number of 62 DVT patients were included and divided in two groups, depending on the type of oral anticoagulation therapy administered. The first group was composed of patients treated with direct oral anticoagulant treatment (Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban) and the second group was composed of patients treated with vitamin K antagonist (Acenocumarol). General data, including BMI and comorbidities were noted. Embolic and hemorrhagic events were noticed.
Results: in the first group of patients (DOAC therapy), a number of 34 patients were included (14 of them with BMI higher than 25 kg/m2 and 14 with concomitant atrial fibrillation), while the second group comprised of 28 patients treated with VKA (21 of them with a high BMI and only 3 of them with atrial fibrillation). After a mean period of 36 months of anticoagulant therapy, complications were present in 17 patients, hematuria (8 episodes) and pulmonary embolism (4 cases) were the most frequent, with no difference regarding the treatment applied. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was encountered regarding embolic and hemorrhagic event rates in our deep vein thrombosis patients.

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Urinary Sodium/Potassium Ratio in Acute Kidney Injury Accurately Differentiates Prerenal Azotemia from Acute Tubular Necrosis

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0011

Objective: To develop a more accurate, cost effective, non-invasive test to differentiate between pre-renal renal failure (PRA) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in acute kidney injury (AKI).
Methods: Urine sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratios were compared with fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) and renal failure index (RFI) as well as other commonly used indices to differentiate patients with PRA from ATN. Patients with a rise in serum creatinine > 0.5 mg/d identified from medical records for a six- to eighteen-month period, were reviewed and categorized either as PRA or ATN based on presenting findings, course in hospital or renal biopsy. All patients had urinary sodium and potassium, creatinine, and serum creatinine done.
Results: The Na/K was < 1 in PRA and > 1 in ATN, correctly identifying all 42 cases of PRA and all 28 patients with ATN. The FeNa was >1 and misdiagnosed 9 of 42 patients with PRA and was >1 and correctly diagnosed all patients with ATN. The RFI was >1 and misdiagnosed 11 of 42 patients with PRA but was >1 and correctly diagnosed all patients with ATN. The BUN/creatinine ratio, urine sodium concentration and U/P creatinine ratio all had a very poor correlation with the correct diagnosis.
Conclusion: The Na/K ratio correctly diagnosed all 42 cases of PRA and all 28 cases of ATN. It is easy to do, is cost effective, non-invasive, and is useful for following patients with PRA to see if and when they develop ATN.

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A Prospective Study about the Influence of Selenium Based Supplements on the Autoimmune Process Evolution and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0009

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of two different Selenium based supplements on patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.
Methods: We conducted a prospective study on 50 patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, who were divided into three different treatment groups, one group taking Selenium 100 µg, one Procor T (a combination of Selenium 100 µg and other elements like copper, Zinc and Q10 Conenzyme) and one control group taking Placebo pills. We measured on two follow up visits the antibody levels (anti-thyroidperoxidase- TPO Ab) and offered each patient a standardized questionnaire regarding the thyroid-related quality of life (THYPROro).
Results: At the 6 months follow up visit there was a statistically significant decrease in the antibody levels for each treatment group compared to the base levels. The THYPROro questionnaire scores showed an improvement in most aspects regarding the quality of life as well, but there was no significant difference between the placebo and the treated groups in the magnitude of this improvement.
Conclusions: Based on our results, we could not identify a certain benefit in improving quality of life with the supplementation of Selenium, as the improvements were at a similar level for the patients who took Placebo pills. Further studies with more patients, as well as taking the Selenium deficiency in consideration (by measuring the basal serum level of Selenium for each patient) would be required to find the target group of patients who could have most benefits of Selenium-based supplementation.

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