Category Archives: Online

The Efficacy of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Intervention in Generalized Anxiety Disorder

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0027

Background: Generalized Anxiety Disorder is one of the anxiety disorders which presents excessive anxiety and worries as central elements that are difficult to control in many situations or activities. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is one of the most important orientations among psychological intervention in the psychotherapy field. This approach is based on a transdiagnostic perspective. Additionally, this therapy has a strong research foundation especially in the treatment of anxiety disorders and depression.
Objective: The present study aims to establish the efficacy of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in medical students who are suffering from generalized anxiety disorder.
Method: The sample of this study consisted of N = 40 first-year medical students (33 women and 7 men) and the average age for the entire group was Mage= 19.22, SD= 1.04. Each student participated at eight therapy sessions. The level of anxiety and irrational beliefs were measured at pre-intervention and post-intervention using psychological questionnaires.
Results: Our findings indicate a statistically significant difference between the pre-intervention and post-intervention phase for the level of anxiety with a value of t = 20.31, df =78, P < 0.001, for irrational cognitions with t = 2.44, df =78, P < 0.05, for irrational beliefs with t = 3.45, df =77, P < 0.01, as well as low frustration tolerance with t = 2.57, df =77, P < 0.05 and awfulizing specifically.
Conclusion: The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy intervention is an extremely efficient psychological treatment for improving emotional functioning in medical students.

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Factors Influencing the Choice of a Pharmacy in Romania: Comparation between Studies Performed in 2012 and 2020

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0029

The main factors perceived by patients as important in selecting a pharmacy were studied for many years. Selected studies mentioned primarily factors such as location, pharmacist competence and attitude, pharmacy services and premiums, and prices. We compared the results from our study in June 2012 with the results of the most recent study conducted in April 2020 focusing on the main factors influencing the patient’s option for a specific pharmacy. Respondents were asked an open question about what is the most important factor they consider when choosing a pharmacy and then answers were grouped into main categories. The urban population has been considered for both studies. The results tell us that the factors influencing the choice of a pharmacy remained unchanged over the time: i) prices, ii) availability of medicine, iii) professionalism of the pharmacist and iv) pharmacy proximity is the most mentioned by our respondents in both studies. However, the rank between these factors changed. Prices remain the top factor while the Availability of medicine (products) has been overcome by the Professionalism of the pharmacist (Attitude of the pharmacist) and Proximity. Using the logistic regression and Odds Ratio, we tried to identify socio-demographic segments significantly associated with these factors. Persons with low income are very likely to indicate Price as the most important factor in choosing a pharmacy in 2012 (OR = 2.088, p=0.018), while respondents aged 65 years and older are more likely not to indicate Price as the most important factor compared with other age groups, in both 2012 and 2020 studies (OR = 0.4, p=0.009, respective OR= 0.325, p=0.010). For this type of respondent, 65 years old and above, the attitude of the pharmacist is the most important factor influencing their choice of a pharmacy in 2020, while products availability has been the most frequent answer for this segment back in 2012. Results in Romania are similar to the ones collected from other countries as reported by other studies. However, particularities of the local market and regulations are influencing the ranking.

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The Anti-tobacco Legislation’s Impact on Air Pollution in Romanian Foster Care Homes

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0019

Objective: The research aimed to investigate the impact of the anti-tobacco legislation (2016) on air quality in Romanian foster care homes.
Methods: The measurements took place in foster care homes situated in three Romanian counties. We recorded data three times (in 2014, in 2016 – six months after the implementation of the anti-tobacco legislation, in 2019). In 41 foster care homes were measured the indoor and outdoor Particulate Matter (PM2.5) level in the air, using the TSI SidePak™ Personal Aerosol Monitor device. Descriptive statistics and t-test were used for data analysis (significant difference if p < 0.05).
Results: The indoor PM2.5 values were higher in every year than outdoor values. Analyzing the anti-tobacco legislation’s impact on air quality, we found no difference between the indoor data measured in 2014 and in 2016, but there was a significant difference in the outdoor values (they were higher in 2016). Comparing the values measured after the implementation of the legislation (2016 vs. 2019) we found no difference in either indoor or outdoor values.
Conclusions: The anti-tobacco legislation has not influenced the indoor air pollution (PM2.5) level. The increased outdoor PM2.5 values suggest that the residents of the foster care homes are smoking more in front of the house after the introduction of the anti-tobacco legislation in 2016.

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Asymptomatic Myxomatous Degeneration of the Mitral Valve, in a Young Male

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0018

Background: In young patients, the most common cause of mitral valve regurgitation is prolapse or flail of the valve, which is morphologically reflected by myxomatous degeneration. In rare cases, such this presented in this paper, this lesion might be incidentally identified, in young people.
Case presentation: A 43-year-old male, with familial history of hypertension, presented in our Department of Cardiology for a routine check-up. Despite of lack of symptoms, an intense murmur was detected at mitral auscultation area. The echocardiography revealed a severe mitral regurgitation caused by flail of posterior mitral valve. The patient was transferred to the Cardiac Surgery Department for surgical intervention consisting in mitral valve repair. The histopathological examination revealed severe myxomatous degeneration of the spongiosa and fibrosa layers. The recovery after surgery was very good with no postoperative complications. The patient was discharged seven days after surgery, with no significant mitral regurgitation at the three-month follow-up.
Conclusions: In young, asymptomatic patients, the proper time for mitral valve repair should be decided by an interdisciplinary team. For a better understanding of myxomatous degeneration particularities, histopathological assessment should be done in any replaced valve. Certification of such lesions, under microscope, might be an indicator for familial cardiovascular screening, in first degree relatives.

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