Correlation Between Helicobacter pylori, Hiatal Hernia and Barrett’s Esophagus

Background: The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus has dramatically increased during the last 2 decades and so has the incidence of Barrett’s esophagus, one of the most important risk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with a lower risk of Barrett’s esophagus development in our area, and if there is a direct correlation between hiatal hernia and Barrett’s esophagus.
Material and method: We studied a series of 4359 patients who were investigated by upper endoscopy in the Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit of Targu Mures County Clinical Emergency Hospital between the 1st of January 2009 and 31st of December 2009. Barrett’s esophagus was defined as the presence of specialized columnar epithelium with goblet cells in the esophagus. We compared the patients with Barrett’s esophagus with a similar serie with patients without reflux disease.
Results: In 33 patients a diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus was established. There was a strong predominance of males. The mean age at diagnosis was 64.18 years. Helicobacter pylori was present in 17 cases (51.51%) in the control patients compared to 42.42% in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (p 0.622, Odds Ratio: 0.69 95% CI: 0.26-1.83). Hiatal hernia was present in patients with Barrett’s esophagus in 21 cases (63.63%), and in patients without reflux disease only in 5 cases (15.15%) (p<0.001, Odds Ratio: 9.8: 95% CI: 2.99-32.18).
Conclusions: A significant correlation between hiatal hernia and Barrett’s esophagus was demonstrated in our study (p<0.001).

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