Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome as Risk Factors of Colorectal Polyps and Colorectal Cancer

Purpose: Obesity and metabolic syndrome, each represent one of the risk factors in colon cancer and colon polyps. We have studied the association between obesity, metabolic syndrome and the risk of developing colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps.
Materials and methods: Our study refers to patients with mucosal modifications at the level of the colon, hospitalized and investigated through colonoscopy in the Gastroenterology Clinic 1, Tîrgu Mureș between 2008–2011.
Results: There were 324 patients with colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps, compared with 345 control patients investigated in the same hospital. In the study group, 69 patients (21.29%) were overweight (BMI 25–29.99 kg/m2) and 71 patients (30.90%) were obese (BMI> 30 kg/m2), compared with the control group, where 53 patients (15.36%) were overweight and 32 patients (9.26%) were obese. There was a significant association between obesity and risk for colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps: BMI >30 kg/m2 – OR = 2.89, CI: 1.64–5.10. We also observed a significant increase in the risk for colorectal polyps and colorectal cancer in parallel with the increase of the number of metabolic syndrome components: 1 component – OR = 1.55, CI: 1.09–2.20; 2 components OR = 2.42, CI: 1.54–3.81; 3 components OR = 2.37, CI: 1.16–4.81; 4 or more components OR = 5.27, CI: 1.07–25.85.
Conclusions: The results of our study showed that obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk for the development of colorectal polyps and colorectal cancer.

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