Author Archives: administrare

The Influence of GPX1 Pro198Leu, CAT C262T and MnSOD Ala16Val Gene Polymorphisms on Susceptibility for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Overall Survival Rate at Five Years from Diagnosis

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0005

Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate possible associations between catalase C262T (CAT C262T), glutathione peroxidase 1 Pro198Leu (GPX1 Pro198Leu), manganese superoxide dismutase Ala16Val (MnSOD Ala16Val) gene polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk (NHL) in a Romanian population and the five-year overall survival rate of the NHL patients.
Methods: We included in this case-control study 406 individuals, divided into two groups: the control group (n=315) and the patients group (n=91). The DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and amplified using specific techniques.
Results: The variant homozygous genotype of GPX1 Pro198Leu represents a risk factor for NHL development and no associations regarding the risk for NHL were found for MnSOD Ala16Val and CAT C262T gene polymorphisms. Two of the studied polymorphisms were associated with the overall survival rate thus: negative association regarding MnSOD Ala16Val, associated with higher overall survival rate and a positive one regarding CAT C262T, associated with lower overall survival rate.
Conclusions: According to our results, the mentioned polymorphisms may be considered as susceptible markers of the five-year overall survival rate for NHL patients. Future studies with a larger number of patients are needed to confirm our results.

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Interferon Beta-1b for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis – More than 10 Years of Experience

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0003

Objective: Interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) was the first disease-modifying agent (DMT) used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the first patients with MS that started treatment in our clinic.
Methods: An observational, retrospective study was performed on 78 patients that had continuous treatment with IFNβ-1b for more than 10 years. The collection of the demographical data and periodical clinical evaluation was performed on all patients. The disability was quantified using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), creating two groups of patients, G1: EDSS < 4.0 and G2: EDSS ≥ 4.0. The hallmarks of the disability evolution were gathered by direct patient interview, such as the symptoms at onset and relapse frequency.
Results: After more than 17 years of disease evolution, more than half (65.38%) of the patients present a mild disability score. The majority (54.90%) started treatment in the first three years after the onset, while the patients in G2 started treatment after more than 3 years from the onset. The initiation of IFNβ-1b lead to a significant reduction of the relapse rates. A reduced number of patients (<25%) transitioned from RRMS to SPMS.
Discussion: Continuous evaluation of MS patients allows us to assess the possibility of prolonged treatment with IFNβ-1b and to differentiate the responders from non-responders. The clear reduction in relapse rates and disability progression, notably in patients that started treatment early ensure us into continuing administering this medication. Compared to historical cohorts, our lot had a slower disability evolution and a significant proportion hadn’t reach an important disability score.

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Public Health in the Framework of the International Security. A Constructive Approach

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0004

The article highlights the fact that public health is an element of the security dimension that must be included on the priority agenda of specialists in the fields of international relations and security studies. There are arguments in favor of this theory. The costs of materializing threats to human security in general and public health, in particular, are particularly high, with serious long-term consequences. Global trends and prospects for the implications that can be generated are likely to change the world’s security landscape, and increasing global connectivity increases the degree of uncertainty about public health implications. Non-traditional issues arising from technological change can induce risks, whose management may go beyond institutional capacities. On the other hand, the new types of wars, increasingly interconnected with various forms of risk materialization, make this mission more difficult. The final conclusion is that these risks need to be assessed to ensure national, regional or even global security, and international cooperation for prevention and counseling.

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New Insights in Treatment Options in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0002

Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents one of the most frequent infections with bacterial etiology during childhood. In infants and toddlers with fever without source UTI’ investigation should be carried out, since signs and symptoms are nonspecific. However, obtaining uncontaminated urine samples from these patients can be challenging and time consuming; all current collection methods (clean-catch, plastic collection bag, catheterization, etc) have disadvantages. Criteria for UTI definition are represented by the presence of significant number of a single uropathogen, this number being different depending on the collection method: at least 1000 colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) for catheter samples and at least 100.000 CFU/ml from midstream clean-catch samples or 50.000 CFU/ml and significant pyuria in a symptomatic or febrile child. Accurate diagnosis of UTI is essential to avoid any antibiotic overuse and expensive investigations. UTI caused by resistant bacterial strains has an increasing prevalence in children. In pediatric population, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent the etiology of around 15% of UTIs. Because of limited therapeutic options the reintroduction of some old antimicrobial agents is necessary, therefore Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin, can represent alternatives for oral treatment and prophylaxis of UTIs in children or in case of resistance suspicion to other drug classes. It is important to recognize patients at risk, such as children with recurrent UTIs, kidney abnormalities, like vesicoureteral reflux and previous antibiotherapy, in order to recommend adequate empiric treatment, especially against resistant bacteria.

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Congestive Heart Failure and Upper Digestive Endoscopic Lesions

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0001

Objective: To evaluate the impact of congestive heart failure and the most important clinical and pathological factors on severe upper digestive mucosal lesions. Methods: The study included 749 patients referred for upper digestive endoscopy, divided into two groups: 140 subjects with congestive heart failure (study group) and 609 subjects without heart failure (control group). Results: Severe endoscopic lesions quantified according to Lanza score (OR = 3.84, 95% IC: 2.62-5.62), active/inactive gastritis (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.36-3.14), intestinal metaplasia and/or gastric atrophy (OR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.67-3.52) were significant more frequent among patients with heart failure. Anemia (OR = 3.65, 95% IC: 2.48-5.37) and all investigated comorbidities, as well as alcohol consumption (OR = 1.60, 95% IC: 1.10-2.34) and smoking (OR = 1.76, 95% IC: 1.17-2.64) were more frequent in the study-group. Dividing the patients with cardiac insufficiency according to the severity of their endoscopic lesions, the male gender (OR = 2.76, 95% IC: 1.35–5.61) and daily low-dose aspirin consumption were found to be more frequent among patients with severe endoscopic lesions (OR = 7.71, 95% IC: 3.62–16.40), while anticoagulant therapy and alcohol consumption were borderline associated with mucosal lesions (p=0.08). Conclusions: Male patients and aspirin consumers with heart failure, but not those with H. pylori infection seem to be more prone to develop upper digestive endoscopic lesions, while alcohol consumption or anticoagulant therapy could be other modifiable factors associated with severe endoscopic lesions in a congestive gastro-duodenal mucosa.
Keywords: congestive heart failure, endoscopic gastro-duodenal lesions, anemia

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Erratum

Table I (Performance of the 2 tests) from the research article „Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Gliclazide 60 mg Modified Release Tablet in Healthy Caucasian” published by Diana Pop et al. in Acta Medica Marisiensis 2018;64(4):163, was included in the text due to technical errors and should be removed, being part of another article published in the same issue.

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Ultrasonography: New Insights in its Applicability to Explore Muscle Mass and Musculoskeletal Inflammation in Critically Ill Patients

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2018-0024

Objective: The main aim of the study was to explore muscle mass changes and to investigate musculoskeletal inflammation in critically ill patients.
Methods: A pure observational study that comprised two musculoskeletal analyses was conducted. Ultrasonography was used to determine the inflammatory process and muscle mass modifications. We assessed the presence of musculoskeletal inflammation and muscles area reduction. We recruited 26 patients and we performed both imaging investigations (shoulder and hip joints, biceps brachii and rectus femoris areas) and anthropometric measurements (mid-upper arm circumference).
Results: More than 70% of patients were classified with low muscle mass, over one half of sarcopenic patients being over-weight and 17% being obese. The relationship between the length of stay in intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation and presence of low mid-upper arm circumference, highlighted a significant difference when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic groups. Musculoskeletal inflammation expressed by step-down lesions, calcifications and osteophytes, is common in these patients. Statistically significant results were obtained when comparing the dimensions of the investigated muscles. Good inter-observer variability in day 3 of assessment for biceps brachii and rectus femoris was noticed.
Conclusions: More than 1/3 of critically ill patients included in the present study was classified with low muscle mass. The length of stay in intensive care unit and the length of mechanical ventilation had an important impact on sarcopenic patients. Musculoskeletal impairment was frequent, reflected by presence of enthesitis lesions in joints and by dynamic reduction of muscle area.

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