Quality by Design is the methodical method to development concept that starts with the predefined objects. The method put emphasis on the process of development of a product, the control process, which is built on risk management and comprehensive knowledge of science. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (Analytical Quality by Design). Comprehension of the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) and the risk assessment for the variables that can have an impact on the productivity of the developed analytical method can be the main principles of the AQbD. Inside the method operable design region (MODR), the AQbD permits the movements of the analytical methods. This paper has been produced to discuss various views of analytical scientists, the comparison with conventional methods, and the phases of the analytical techniques.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a low-cost, yet sensitive and precise UHPLC method for the quantitative determination of ostarine from dietary supplements (DS) for athletes. The analytical performance of the method was verified on a DS legally acquired from a specialized website for athletes. The uniformity of mass and content of the ostarine DS was also verified.
Methods: For the quantitative determination of ostarine a UHPLC method was developed and validated. The separation was performed using a reversed-phase C18 column, using a mixture of 75% methanol: 25% formic acid 0.1% in isocratic elution, at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. The uniformity of mass and content of DS was performed following the methodology described in the European Pharmacopoeia 7th Edition.
Results: The validated method was specific and linear on the concentration range of 1-25 µg/ml and was precise and accurate at all concentration levels, according to the official guidelines for validating analytical methods. An average mass of 510 mg content was obtained for the ostarine capsules, with an RSD of 2.41%. Regarding the uniformity of the content, an average of 4.65 mg ostarine/capsule was obtained with an RSD of 1.05%.
Conclusions: The developed UHPLC method was suitable, rapid, sensitive and allowed quantitative determination of active substance content in a DS with ostarine (92.91% ostarine/capsule from 5 mg ostarine/capsule declared by the manufacturer).
Objective: To develop a more accurate, cost effective, non-invasive test to differentiate between pre-renal renal failure (PRA) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in acute kidney injury (AKI).
Methods: Urine sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratios were compared with fractional excretion of sodium (FeNa) and renal failure index (RFI) as well as other commonly used indices to differentiate patients with PRA from ATN. Patients with a rise in serum creatinine > 0.5 mg/d identified from medical records for a six- to eighteen-month period, were reviewed and categorized either as PRA or ATN based on presenting findings, course in hospital or renal biopsy. All patients had urinary sodium and potassium, creatinine, and serum creatinine done.
Results: The Na/K was < 1 in PRA and > 1 in ATN, correctly identifying all 42 cases of PRA and all 28 patients with ATN. The FeNa was >1 and misdiagnosed 9 of 42 patients with PRA and was >1 and correctly diagnosed all patients with ATN. The RFI was >1 and misdiagnosed 11 of 42 patients with PRA but was >1 and correctly diagnosed all patients with ATN. The BUN/creatinine ratio, urine sodium concentration and U/P creatinine ratio all had a very poor correlation with the correct diagnosis.
Conclusion: The Na/K ratio correctly diagnosed all 42 cases of PRA and all 28 cases of ATN. It is easy to do, is cost effective, non-invasive, and is useful for following patients with PRA to see if and when they develop ATN.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of two different Selenium based supplements on patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.
Methods: We conducted a prospective study on 50 patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, who were divided into three different treatment groups, one group taking Selenium 100 µg, one Procor T (a combination of Selenium 100 µg and other elements like copper, Zinc and Q10 Conenzyme) and one control group taking Placebo pills. We measured on two follow up visits the antibody levels (anti-thyroidperoxidase- TPO Ab) and offered each patient a standardized questionnaire regarding the thyroid-related quality of life (THYPROro).
Results: At the 6 months follow up visit there was a statistically significant decrease in the antibody levels for each treatment group compared to the base levels. The THYPROro questionnaire scores showed an improvement in most aspects regarding the quality of life as well, but there was no significant difference between the placebo and the treated groups in the magnitude of this improvement.
Conclusions: Based on our results, we could not identify a certain benefit in improving quality of life with the supplementation of Selenium, as the improvements were at a similar level for the patients who took Placebo pills. Further studies with more patients, as well as taking the Selenium deficiency in consideration (by measuring the basal serum level of Selenium for each patient) would be required to find the target group of patients who could have most benefits of Selenium-based supplementation.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to propose a new UHPLC method for the determination of cannabidiol (CBD) from supplements and drugs available on the Romanian market. Materials and methods: The HPLC assay of CBD was achieved by using a Phenomenex Gemini NX-C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of 70% acetonitrile and 30% water. Elution was performed in isocratic mode and the detection was done at 208 nm. The method was tested on hard capsules containing 150 mg of CBD.
Results and discussions: The retention time of CBD was 2.8 minutes. Regression analysis showed good linearity over the 1-100 ug/ml concentration range. The lowest limit of quantification was established at 1 µg/ml. The method was developed by using reconstituted capsules. The substance proved low stability in solution at room temperature and stability at temperatures between 2-8ºC. The recovery of reconstituted samples was 96.77%. The commercial capsules had a very low content of 15-20% from declared content.
Conclusions: The proposed method can be used for CBD determination in different pharmaceutical formulations – hard and soft capsules with coconut oil as excipient.
Objectives: To describe tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, second-hand smoke exposure, and training in cessation counseling at the University of Medicine Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu-Mureș (UMPSTTM), as baseline data for the first Romanian university to implement a Smoke-Free University Project.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered in 2014 among dental students at UMPSTTM to explore their smoking habits, attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, exposure to second-hand smoke, interest in quitting, and their knowledge about cessation counseling. We used core questions of the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) and added specific items related to the Smoke-Free University Project. Data were analyzed by SPSS v22 software. We compared our results with those of the GHPSS Survey.
Results: 581 dental students, 73.1% of the target population (n=795), completed the questionnaire. 38.7% were current smokers. Approximately 1 in 5 (22.6%) current smokers admitted smoking inside university buildings, although 80.7% were aware of the smoking ban. 44.2% of current smokers plan to quit smoking. Nearly half of the students (48.9%) were exposed to second-hand smoke in their current homes, 78.1% in public places and 33.3% inside the university buildings. Only 21.0% of all participants received any formal training on how to help future patients quit.
Conclusions: Tobacco use prevalence was higher among future dentists than in the majority of respondents to the GHPSS. Changes in dental school education are needed to promote personal smoking cessation, as well as to educate dentists on how to support their future patients quitting.
Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate possible associations between catalase C262T (CAT C262T), glutathione peroxidase 1 Pro198Leu (GPX1 Pro198Leu), manganese superoxide dismutase Ala16Val (MnSOD Ala16Val) gene polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk (NHL) in a Romanian population and the five-year overall survival rate of the NHL patients.
Methods: We included in this case-control study 406 individuals, divided into two groups: the control group (n=315) and the patients group (n=91). The DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and amplified using specific techniques.
Results: The variant homozygous genotype of GPX1 Pro198Leu represents a risk factor for NHL development and no associations regarding the risk for NHL were found for MnSOD Ala16Val and CAT C262T gene polymorphisms. Two of the studied polymorphisms were associated with the overall survival rate thus: negative association regarding MnSOD Ala16Val, associated with higher overall survival rate and a positive one regarding CAT C262T, associated with lower overall survival rate.
Conclusions: According to our results, the mentioned polymorphisms may be considered as susceptible markers of the five-year overall survival rate for NHL patients. Future studies with a larger number of patients are needed to confirm our results.
Objective: Interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) was the first disease-modifying agent (DMT) used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the first patients with MS that started treatment in our clinic.
Methods: An observational, retrospective study was performed on 78 patients that had continuous treatment with IFNβ-1b for more than 10 years. The collection of the demographical data and periodical clinical evaluation was performed on all patients. The disability was quantified using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), creating two groups of patients, G1: EDSS < 4.0 and G2: EDSS ≥ 4.0. The hallmarks of the disability evolution were gathered by direct patient interview, such as the symptoms at onset and relapse frequency.
Results: After more than 17 years of disease evolution, more than half (65.38%) of the patients present a mild disability score. The majority (54.90%) started treatment in the first three years after the onset, while the patients in G2 started treatment after more than 3 years from the onset. The initiation of IFNβ-1b lead to a significant reduction of the relapse rates. A reduced number of patients (<25%) transitioned from RRMS to SPMS.
Discussion: Continuous evaluation of MS patients allows us to assess the possibility of prolonged treatment with IFNβ-1b and to differentiate the responders from non-responders. The clear reduction in relapse rates and disability progression, notably in patients that started treatment early ensure us into continuing administering this medication. Compared to historical cohorts, our lot had a slower disability evolution and a significant proportion hadn’t reach an important disability score.
The article highlights the fact that public health is an element of the security dimension that must be included on the priority agenda of specialists in the fields of international relations and security studies. There are arguments in favor of this theory. The costs of materializing threats to human security in general and public health, in particular, are particularly high, with serious long-term consequences. Global trends and prospects for the implications that can be generated are likely to change the world’s security landscape, and increasing global connectivity increases the degree of uncertainty about public health implications. Non-traditional issues arising from technological change can induce risks, whose management may go beyond institutional capacities. On the other hand, the new types of wars, increasingly interconnected with various forms of risk materialization, make this mission more difficult. The final conclusion is that these risks need to be assessed to ensure national, regional or even global security, and international cooperation for prevention and counseling.