Category Archives: Current

Ulnar-basilic arteriovenous fistula with multilocular gigantic aneurysmal dilatation: a case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0035

Introduction: Arteriovenous fistula dysfunction has been associated with a range of problems such as thrombosis, stenosis, dilatation, and infection.
Case presentation: We present the case of a 64-year-old patient with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis and with aneurysmal dilatation of the ulnar-basilic arteriovenous fistula, having an increased risk of rupture. A temporary dialysis catheter is placed in the left femoral vein, an aneurysmal basilic vein is ligated at the anastomosis, aneurysmal dilatation is emptied by compression, and a right radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula is performed. The patient undergoes hemodialysis on the second day and subsequently three times a week for six weeks until the new arteriovenous fistula develops. He returns for aneurysmal sac resection.
Conclusion: The purpose of this paper is the presentation and management of a 15-year-old ulnar-basilic arteriovenous fistula with multilocular aneurysmal development and an imminent rupture.

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Study of the anxiolytic effect of propranolol and dextromethorphan in mice using a model of psychogenic stress

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0034

Objective: To find the anxiolytic effects in a psychogenic stress model in mice, the present study has investigated the interaction between propranolol and dextromethorphan.
Methods: 50 Albino Swiss male mice were housed in groups of 10 per cage. The beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol (20 mg/kg bw), the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor dextromethorphan (30 mg/kg bw), and their combination were administered 10 minutes after exposure to predator odor. The treatments included diazepam as positive control and normal saline as negative control. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) 7 days after stress induction.
Results: Regarding the length of stay (F=25.53; p<0.0001)/ number of entries in the open arms (F=3.533; p=0.0416), time (F=6.127; p=0.0045)/ number of entries in the closed arms (F=5.690; p=0.0141), time in center-point (F=3.577; p=0,0295), and total distance traveled (F= 4.711; p=0.0145), there was a significant difference among the treated groups. Propranolol and dextromethorphan treated groups expressed lower time in the closed arms vs Placebo (p=0.0089, respectively p=0.0111). In addition, the time spent in the open arms was higher in propranolol group vs placebo group (p=0.0215).
Conclusions: Considering obtained data, there was a decrease of symptoms in the sympathetic nervous system and the psychological stress disappeared in mice applying a treatment of 20 mg/kg bw propranolol. Our findings indicated that dextromethorphan partially mediated the anxiolytic-like activity. However, the combination of these two drugs did not express anxiolytic effects.

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Relationship between obesity and psychosocial risk factors in hypertensive patients

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0030

Introduction: Unhealthy lifestyle habits, including sedentary behaviour and improper diet are major risk factors for obesity. Overweight is very frequent in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic patients. Psychosocial factors are associated with multiple health behaviors related to overweight/obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between obesity and psychosocial risk factors in hypertensive patients having different levels of education.
Material and methods: 623 hypertensive patients, admitted to the Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Clinic in Tîrgu Mureș were evaluated by weight, height, waist circumference, laboratory analyses and psychosocial risk based on a validated questionnaire on nine topics. Non-paired Student t test was used for statistical evaluation of the obtained data.
Results: Obesity or overweight affected 86.9% of the studied hypertensive patients. Obesity was more frequent in subjects having type 2 diabetes as comorbidity. Mean BMI was significantly higher in the lower education group (p=0.007) compared to those with higher level of education. Average triglyceride and uric acid levels were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to those having lower BMI (p<0.0001). Patients living alone had significantly lower mean BMI (p=0.006) and waist circumference values (p=0.001) compared to those living with their spouse.
Conclusions: Weight excess in very frequent in the studied hypertensive patients, especially in those with type 2 diabetes as comorbidity and having lower educational level. Hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia occurred more frequently in obese subjects compared to non-obese ones. Overweight is less frequent in patients living alone.

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Insulin resistance as risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic approach

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0033

Insulin resistance is a heterogenous condition with high prevalence in medical practice. As diabesity reaches epidemic levels worldwide, the role of insulin resistance is getting great importance. Contribution of risk factors like sedentary lifestyle, diets high in saturated fats and refined carbohydrates leads to this state with significant consequences. Besides its role in diabetes, insulin resistance is also associated with other several endocrine diseases, having not only a role in their development, but also to their treatment approach, evolution and even prognosis. The present review summarizes the current literature on the clinical significance of insulin resistance, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms and treatment options in order to achieve a high quality of life of these categories of patients. Deepening the role of inflammatory cytokines involved in insulin resistance paves the way for future research findings in this continuously evolving field.

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Prosthodontic Management of Dentate Maxillectomy Patient: A Clinical Case Report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0038

Patients with minor defects of the alveolar ridge and hard palate can easily be treated by surgical closure, while patients with larger defects are more amenable to prosthetic restoration. The case report describes the rehabilitation of a dentate maxillectomy patient with a definitive closed hollow bulb cast partial obturator. A tripod retainer design was chosen for direct retention in the case. The tripod design consisted of a T-bar clasp placed on the left first central incisor and two embrasure clasps with buccal retention and palatal bracing components between the right first & second premolar and right first & second molar. A complete palate major connector was designed to ensure uniform distribution of functional load across tissues. The remaining teeth, the palate, and the rest provided support for the prosthesis. Prosthetic rehabilitation of the defect with a definitive obturator thus seals tissue openings in the palate, improves deglutition, speech, mastication, aesthetics, and significantly improves quality of life.

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Soy polysaccharides therapeutic and technological aspects

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0040

Soy polysaccharides represent a multipurpose class of chemicals that include both therapeutical and technological properties. Since they have been first time introduced in the pharmaceutical field, Soy polysaccharides were used in two different pharmaceutical formulations; sublingual tablets and in colon drug delivery. For the sublingual tablets, Soy polysaccharides under the brand name of Emcosoy© – were used as a superdisintegrant in concentrations between 4-8% showing comparable results with the artificial superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycolate, sodium croscarmellose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone). The second technological field where Soy polysaccharides were used is represented by colon drug delivery where it was used in combination with ethylcellulose showing a prolonged lag time compared to the results found in the literature. The medicinal effect of these polysaccharides consists of treating diarrhea. As it will be presented in the article, these chemical compounds tend to decrease the aqueous stool time in patients with diarrhea and to conduct to a softer stool in healthy patients. In conclusion, these polysaccharides present multiple purposes possessing a medicinal effect and also the possibility of being used as a double-faceted pharmaceutical excipient.

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E-cigarette and alternative tobacco products consumption among adolescents in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova – A repeated cross-sectional study

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0039

Objective: The main objective of the study was to evaluate e-cigarette and alternative tobacco product use in ninth-grade students from Chisinau.
Methods: The repeated cross-sectional study collected data using a questionnaire administered in 2015 and 2018 among ninth-grade students in Chisinau, Republic of Moldova. Absolute and relative frequencies of electronic cigarettes and alternative tobacco products ever use were calculated and 2015 data were compared with those collected in 2018.
Results: The percentage of participants ever using electronic cigarettes in 2015 and 2018 respectively was 42.9% and 59.5% (p=0.001), ever using cigars was 14.9% and 15.9% (p=0.684), ever using pipes was 3.3% and 4.9% (p=0.205), ever using hookah was 17.4% and 21.7% (p=0.086), ever using chewing tobacco was 11.6% and 3.9% (p=0.039), ever using snus was 4.1% and 6.2% (p=0.135), and ever using snuff was 0.5% and 1.1% respectively (p=0.518). Exposure of participants to messages promoting electronic cigarettes was 31.0% in 2015 and 65.8% in 2018 (p<0.0001). Consumption of electronic cigarettes was significantly associated with sex (boys 62.8% vs. girls 43.6%), school performance (low grades 61.5% vs. high grades 50.0%), exposure to pro e-cigarette messages (exposed 61.4% vs. not exposed 44.0%), perceived e-cigarettes harmfulness (less harmful 66.9% vs. more harmful 39.7%), and use of conventional cigarettes (ever tried 79.8% vs. never tried 24.6%).
Conclusions: The study showed an important, statistically significant increase in the consumption of electronic cigarettes among ninth-grade students in Chisinau city, from 2015 to 2018 and an increased exposure to electronic cigarette advertising.

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The Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Approach in Clinical Practice – A Narrative Review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0037

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly condition in medical practice. In the absence of an effective therapeutic management, it can lead to significant maternal and neonatal complications with adverse health effects. Reducing the risk of morbidity is the goal achived by screening of all pregnant women and active involvement of health care staff and early medical intervention in case of detection of GDM. The aim of this review is to present the nowadays strategy of GDM approach. The management challenge is to maintain blood glucose levels within the targets recommended by current guidelines, which are in relatively narrow ranges. Nutritional intervention and lifestyle changes are of primary importance. If necessary insulin therapy is initiated, insulin analogues are preferable due to lower risk of hypoglycemia. Oral antidiabetics are not recommended in pregnancy, even if they are used in certain circumstances.

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Mediation of Candida species growth and virulence by the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0036

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects that might also influence the virulence traits of some microorganisms, but its direct influence over Candida spp. is currently unknown. The objective of the study is to determine the influence of IL-6 (250 pg/ml) on the growth rate and biofilm formation of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. auris, and C. guilliermondii, as well as to analyze the influence of this citokine on the expression of three virulence genes (ALS3, HSP70, SAP2), respectively on the germ tube formation ability of C. albicans. The influence of IL-6 on growth rate was assessed by incubating the fungal cells in presence of IL-6 for 48 hours and assessing the optical density of the samples at five timepoints. The biofilm production in presence of IL-6 was studied in microtiter plates, using crystal-violet assay, the intensity of biofilms being evaluated by spectrophotometry. The expression of ALS3, HSP70, and SAP2 in C. albicans was studied by RT-PCR, reported to ACT1 housekeeping gene. The germ-tube test was performed to assess the influence of IL-6 on the filamentation rate of C. albicans. All test results were normalized against control, without added IL-6. The results showed that IL-6 influences the growth rate of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. auris, and C. guilliermondii in a time-dependent way. Also, IL-6 inhibited the formation of biofilms for C. albicans and C. guilliermondii. In C. albicans cells, IL-6 induced upregulation of ALS3 and HSP70, while it down-regulated the SAP2 gene. IL-6 did not influence the germ-tube formation in C. albicans. In conclusion, IL-6 might exert, in vitro, direct effects on the virulence traits of Candida spp., and its influence is dependent on the exposure time. Non-albicans Candida species presented particular responses to IL-6.

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