Category Archives: Case Report

Single-plaque psoriasis: a single-clue diagnostic challenge

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0019

Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic, common immune inflammatory condition of the skin, affecting 2-3% of the population, with regional variability. Classically, psoriasis presents as one of the following types: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular or erythrodermic psoriasis. Typically, the patient will present with several symmetric psoriatic plaques on typical areas of the body, leading the clinician towards the diagnosis of psoriasis.
Case report: The present case report series focuses on an atypical presentation of psoriasis noted in 2 patients who presented to our office with a single large, erythematous plaque located on the lower leg. Due to poor response to previous treatment, a biopsy was performed and upon analysis, revealed a diagnosis of psoriasis. The lesions showed significant improvement under local therapy.
Conclusion: In spite of significant research on such a common and seemingly well-understood dermatosis, the present case reports plead for further study with regards to atypical presentations of psoriasis.

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Reattachment of coronal tooth fragments: Aesthetic management of a complicated anterior maxillary crown fracture

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0027

The trauma of anterior teeth is a frequent occurrence in young patients. Reattachment of fractured fragments is one of the various treatment modalities proposed in anterior tooth coronal fractures. The reattachment of fractured fragments grants the advantage of immediate aesthetic rehabilitation and restoration of function, which is a relatively rapid and less arduous procedure. The manuscript presents a case report depicting the management of a complicated crown root fracture of anterior maxillary teeth first treated endodontically, followed by reattachment of the same fragment with a cast post-reinforcement. Reattachment of fractured coronal tooth fragments is a feasible restorative option, rapidly restoring the function and aesthetics of the tooth by a conservative and inexpensive approach.

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Unusual case of infrarenal pheochromocytoma developed on ectopic adrenal tissue: An autopsy case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0025

Introduction: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors arising from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. We describe an unusual case of pheochromocytoma located in the infrarenal area and associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
Case presentation: A 70-year-old patient was admitted for syncope, diaphoresis, and high blood pressure. Computed tomography showed a 73x70x72 mm retroperitoneal mass of the left infrarenal area. High levels of metanephrine and noradrenaline were found in the urine. A tumor resection was performed. A few days after surgery, the blood pressure suddenly decreased and could not be restored, resulting in the death of the patient. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed a proliferation of monotonous cells, with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei with prominent nucleoli arranged in clusters, and capsular and vascular invasion. The tumor cells expressed synaptophysin and chromogranin, without positivity for inhibin A or S100 protein. At the autopsy, both adrenal glands showed hyperplasia but unrelated to the tumor mass. The histological aspect, location, and immunophenotype indicated an ectopic infrarenal pheochromocytoma.
Conclusions: In patients with pheochromocytoma developed on ectopic adrenal tissue, clinical management might be difficult, and diagnosis can be sometimes established only based on post-mortem histopathological examination. Autopsy can be extremely useful in such cases with unexplained evolution.

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Postpartum pancreatitis in young female – a rare case in the Emergency Department

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0018

Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is a condition that leads to multiple organ failure syndromes if not diagnosed and treated correctly. The most frequent causes of acute pancreatitis are gallstones, alcohol consumption, and elevated triglyceride serum level.
Case Presentation: A 21-year-old female presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and diaphoresis. The patient had a non-complicated vaginal birth four months prior, had no personal history of illness, reported no alcohol consumption, and had a slender body constitution. Laboratory tests outlined a white blood cell count of 22.000/µL, elevated neutrophil count, lactate dehydrogenase 294 U/L, and lipemic serum sample reported for chemistry laboratory test. In addition, the contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed severe pancreatitis, with an intraabdominal fluid collection.
Conclusions: This case report highlights the importance of correct early diagnosis in the postpartum and late postpartum period and raises awareness concerning the possibility of acute pancreatitis in a postpartum woman even if she does not have the two most common risk factors: gallstones or alcohol consumption.

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Development of a low-grade glioma in an ischemic brain territory that evolved into a glioblastoma. A case report and brief literature review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0015

Introduction: Glioblastoma is one of the most common and aggressive brain tumours with a very high mortality rate. It often evolves from a late or misdiagnosed astrocytoma. Stroke is one of the most common pathologies of the brain, affecting approximately 1.1 million Europeans each year. This article presents the sequential development of a low-grade astrocytoma in an ischemic brain territory into a high-grade glioblastoma.
Case presentation: A 59-year-old patient presented to our hospital with severe headache and transient loss of balance and vision. Clinical findings and control imaging revealed the presence of an ischemic brain area in the left temporal lobe of the brain. Monthly brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up revealed the development of a low-grade astrocytoma in the ischemic territory, which later evolved into a glioblastoma.
Conclusions: Patients who suffer from a stroke should be closely monitored via MRI to prevent the rare development of tumour pathology in the affected territory.

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Non syndromic congenital agenesis of multiple permanent teeth: Case series and recent literature review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0013

Introduction: Hypodontia refers to the congenital absence of less than six teeth. This absence may be unilateral or bilateral. Though the congenital agenesis of bilateral mandibular/ maxillary incisors has often been reported in literature, however, the congenital absence of bilateral mandibular and maxillary incisors, as well as the mandibular second molar- giving rise to a total of six missing permanent teeth in an apparently healthy individual has not been reported earlier.
Case presentation: This case series presents two cases of a 10- and 11-year-old children with presence of retained deciduous anterior in both arches with absence of permanent successors and also aims to review the literature regarding etiology, clinical implications and management in such cases.
Conclusions: It is essential that practitioners monitor the developing dentition with establishment of a proper review schedule. Non-eruption of the permanent tooth more than one year later than expected, or even after six months following the emergence of the contralateral tooth, warrants a high degree of suspicion. A multidisciplinary team, including pediatric, restorative and orthodontic specialists, is advised. In addition, prior to formulation of any treatment plan, due consideration to the general issues such as the patient’s systemic and oral health, motivation and expectations should be given.

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Use of the continuous glucose monitoring system in the management of hypoglicemia in insulin autoimmune syndrome

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0011

Background: Insulin autoimune syndrome (IAS), also known as Hirata’s disease, is a rare cause of spontaneous hyperinsulinemic hypoglicemia characterised by the presence of autoantibodies directed against human insulin (IAA).
Case Report: A 48-year-old Caucasian female patient with IAS was studied in two different periods, for 7 days each, using a continuous monitoring system (CGM) under various treatment regimens, i.e diet modification and corticosteroids therapy.
Discussions: The use of CGM in autoimmune hypoglycemia is encouraged and must be taken into consideration in order to prevent episodes of hypoglicemia. Including of IAS and quantification of IAA in differential diagnosis in patients with hypoglicemia episodes and negative imaging results can prevent patients from going through unnecessary procedures.

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Abdominal wall metastases due to a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: Case report and literature review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0010

Introduction: At the time of diagnosis, most patients with lung cancer are in an inoperable stage, with distant metastases. Most often, these patients have metastases to the brain, adrenal glands, liver, or bones. This article presents the case of a patient with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastases in the abdominal wall.
Case presentation: A 67-year-old patient came to our service reporting the existence of a tumor 5 cm in diameter, located at the level of the abdominal wall, without other clinical symptoms. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. The postoperative evolution was favorable, with the patient discharged on the third postoperative day. Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Conclusions: The appearance of a tumor in the abdominal wall of patients with NSCLC may raise the suspicion of metastasis at this level.

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Prosthetic management of acquired dentate maxillectomy defects: A clinical case series

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0009

Acquired maxillectomy defects produce hypernasal speech, food, and liquid regurgitation into the nasal cavity, impaired deglutition and mastication, and cosmetic deformity. Furthermore, patients with acquired maxillary defects face psychosocial stigma, which has a negative impact on their quality of life. Prosthetic rehabilitation of such defects is required for stomatognathic system restoration and oroantral communication obturation. This case series discusses the fabrication of surgical, interim, and definitive obturator prostheses to restore the acquired dentate maxillectomy defects of three cancer patients. All patients had their treatment in the prosthodontics department of the RUHS College of Dental Sciences. The surgical obturator prosthesis was made before surgery, whereas the interim and definitive obturators were made one month and six months after surgery, respectively. The surgical obturator formed a shield between the surgical pack and the oral cavity. After the surgical obturator and packing were removed, an interim obturator was inserted for three to six months to allow the surgical site to heal. After the surgical site had healed, the fabrication of the definitive obturator began. Prosthetic rehabilitation with obturator prostheses sealed the acquired tissue defects of the palate and restored swallowing, speaking, chewing capacity, and cosmetic value, as well as significantly improved the quality of life of these patients.

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Pier Abutment: Bridge the gap with Non rigid connector – A clinical case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0008

Pier abutment is defined as a freestanding abutment with edentulous space on both sides. This case report described the rehabilitation of a patient who presented to the department with the primary complaint of missing teeth and difficulty in mastication. Intraoral examination revealed missing right maxillary canine and the second premolar, with the lone standing first premolar acting as a pier abutment. To reduce the stress transferred to the abutment and prosthetic assembly, a non-rigid (Tenon-mortise) connector was used in the case, with a keyway (mortise) distal to the pier abutment and a key (Tenon) mesial to the distal pontic.

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