Category Archives: Volume 66, Issue 2, June 2020

Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0013

Introduction: Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is a rare complication occuring mostly in diabetic patients appearing as a skin redness that soon transforms into an extensive necrosis. The usual aspect of such lesions is a deep ulceration with irregular borders developing especially on the lower limbs.
Case presentations: This paper intends to present two cases of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum focusing on the clinical aspect of this disease and the original treatment applied in the Plastic Surgery Department of the Clinical County Hospital of Targu Mures. Both patients suffered from type II insulin-requiring diabetes. The first case is a 63 year old female with different stages of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum lesions developed on the anterior aspect of both legs. This patient was treated using only conservative methods. The second case is a 64 year old male who developed an extensive full-thickness necrosis on the right dorsal aspect of the hand and forearm. The lesions required conservative treatment and the surgical debridement of the extensive necrotic tissues.
Conclusions: Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is a dramatic condition requiring a well informed approach in order to save the healthy tissues as much as possible. In both cases, the wounds healed spontaneously after a long period of time.

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An Update on the Genetic Aspects in Congenital Ventricular Septal Defect

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0012

Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common type of heart malformation and may occur like a part of a syndrome or as an isolated form. Clinical manifestations are related to the interventricular flow, which is determined by the size of the defect. Aiming at the identification of genetic causes is important in both syndromic and non-syndromic forms of VSD, to estimate the prognosis and choose the optimal management. Other reasons of the identification of genetic factors in the etiopathogenesis include the assessment of the neurodevelopmental delay risk, recurrence in the offspring, and association with extracardiac malformations. The diagnostic process has been improved, and currently, the use of the most suitable and accessible technique in the clinical practice represents a challenge. Additional advantages in genetic testing were brought by next-generation sequencing technique, various testing panels being available in many laboratories.

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Urinary Retention in Female after Augmentation Gluteoplasty: A Case Report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0011

Introduction: There are many well-known complications after gluteal augmentation surgery, such as: seroma, hematoma, capsular contracture, retraction, wound dehiscence etc., but there are some due to nervous damage (especially submuscular pockets with large implants) insufficiently recognized. The aim of this case report is to highlight a rare complication (urinary retention) after gluteal augmentation surgery with use of solid silicone implants in case of 41-year-old female. Woman aged 41 with a buttock augmentation with silicone implant (submuscular pocket, 300cc) performed 2 months before at plastic surgery service in Madrid, was admitted in our service, the Clinic of Urology from Tg. Mures, with permanent bladder catheter inserted for urinary retention.
Outcome: At the admission, two months after the surgery the clinical examination revealed a permeable urinary catheter with clear urine and a fistulisated wound infection localized in the superior 1/3 of the incision in the intergluteal sulcus. Neither neurological or gynecological examination identified any pathology. After the removal of the catheter, next day the abdominal ultrasonography showed a distended bladder, with a postvoid residual urine volume of 320 ml. Urodynamic investigations (uroflowmetry, pressure flow studies) revealed a reduced Qmax. 7,6 ml/sec, underactive detrusor with a reduced BCI value of 60 (bladder contractility index), requiring self-intermittent catheterization, associated with alpha-blockers.
Conclusions: Buttock implantation is a frequently used plastic surgery procedure with rather high rate of complications, some of them not well identified, unknown such as detrusor underactivity leading to urinary retention.

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A Study of Heat Generation in Orthopaedic Bone Drilling Process

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0009

Reconstruction and repair of a complete bone fracture requires surgical drilling of bone in order to create holes which support easy insertion of screws. The objective of the research is to optimize kinematic parameters when drilling bone in order to avoid bone necrosis and increase the capacity of bones to retain the surgical screws. In literature there are presented attempts to measure the temperature of bones by introducing thermocouples into bone near the drill path which is not a satisfactory method. In this research it is proposed a new method for measuring temperature by means of a digital infrared thermometer oriented on bone surface where holes are made. We have drilled animal bones and represented the experimental curves of temperature for a wide range of kinematic parameters that are supposed to be used during orthopaedic operations. It is concluded speeds ranges that can be used when drilling bone holes, which ensures good cutting conditions and temperatures at a level which does not affect the quality of the assembly.

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Considerations on the Use of Organic Substances in Chemical Peels: A Systematic Review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0010

Chemical peel is a dermato-cosmetic procedure used to destroy and remove, in a controlled manner and under the supervision of the specialists, the degraded parts of the skin, in order to allow acceleration of the skin regeneration process. Based on their depth of skin penetration chemical peels are classified into superficial, medium and deep peels. The substances used in the chemical peels differ from each other depending on the effective action depth. Different peel agents with an appropriate peel depth should be selected based on the problem to be treated, considering also the nature of skin pathology. To achieve the best results other factors, such as skin type and characteristics, region to be treated, safety issues, healing time, and patient adherence, should also be considered. The present review focuses on the particularities of the substances used in various peel types, highlighting recent advances in chemical peel technology and explaining suggested application of certain substances in different peel types.

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Enumerating the Yield and Purity of PfDNA from Archived, Newly Used mRDTs and Comparison with DBS from a Malaria-Endemic Focus

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0008

Objective: Archived malaria rapid diagnostic test strips (mRDTs) serves as an important source of plasmodium Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) in epidemiological studies. The presence of Plasmodium falciparum DNA (PfDNA) in mRDTs (yr. 2016-2017) and newly used ones (yr. 2018) were enumerated with a view to establish the parasite’s optimum genomic DNA volume. Methods: A retrospective study to determine the yield and purity of used mRDTs was carried out on randomly selected mRDTs (2016 – 2018). Both positive and negative mRDTs samples were analyzed with nested Polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained from study enrolments and analyzed molecularly. nPCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis were used to determine P. falciparum DNA. Results: Agarose gel electrophoresis results showed that only 26 out of the 50 samples eligible for screening were PCR positive for P. falciparum. The following was observed; yrs.: 2016 – 17(34%) with 2.06 X 103 yield, 1.7235 purity; 2017 – 16(32%) with 1.03 X 103 yield, 1.7619 purity and 2018 – 17(34%) with 1.42 X 103 yield, 1.6194 purity. Molecular analysis (P.f. 18Ss rRNA) was determined to ascertain positive result that appeared negative using mRDTs or microscopy. The DNA yield of the DBS for 2018 was 1.66 X 103 and a purity (Optical Density 260/280) of 1.69. The purity was higher than that of the mRDTs with a DNA yield of 1.42 X 103 and 1.62 purity. Conclusion: PfDNA extraction is an important process for malaria PCR screening and the reliability is dependent on pureness and concentration.

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