Category Archives: AMM 2022

Non Syndromic Congenital Agenesis of Multiple Permanent Teeth: Case Series and Recent Literature Review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0013

Introduction: Hypodontia refers to the congenital absence of less than six teeth. This absence may be unilateral or bilateral. Though the congenital agenesis of bilateral mandibular/ maxillary incisors has often been reported in literature, however, the congenital absence of bilateral mandibular and maxillary incisors, as well as the mandibular second molar- giving rise to a total of six missing permanent teeth in an apparently healthy individual has not been reported earlier.
Case presentation: This case series presents two cases of a 10- and 11-year-old children with presence of retained deciduous anterior in both arches with absence of permanent successors and also aims to review the literature regarding etiology, clinical implications and management in such cases.
Conclusions: It is essential that practitioners monitor the developing dentition with establishment of a proper review schedule. Non-eruption of the permanent tooth more than one year later than expected, or even after six months following the emergence of the contralateral tooth, warrants a high degree of suspicion. A multidisciplinary team, including pediatric, restorative and orthodontic specialists, is advised. In addition, prior to formulation of any treatment plan, due consideration to the general issues such as the patient’s systemic and oral health, motivation and expectations should be given.

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Comparative analysis of mandibular changes after orthodontic treatment with and without extraction of four premolars – A digital cephalometric study

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0012

Objective: To compare and evaluate the cephalometric hard and soft tissue changes of mandible after orthodontic treatment with and without extraction of four first premolar.
Methodology: 60 individuals with Class I skeletal pattern were selected as per inclusion criteria. They were divided into two groups: 30 in the extraction group and 30 in the non-extraction group. Each group consists of 15 males and 15 females. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of the selected subjects were obtained, analysed and compared to assess the changes might have occurred. Descriptive statistics of the explanatory and outcome variables were calculated by mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables. Paired t test was applied to check the statistical difference of pre-treatment and post-treatment cephalometric parameters within the group (Extraction and non-extraction). Unpaired t test was used to check the statistical difference between extraction and non-extraction groups. The level of significance is set at 5%.
Results: B point moved backward with lower incisor retraction. N-A-Pog shows a statistically significant decrease in the extraction group (P=0.003). B-NP shows a statistically significant decrease in extraction group (P=0.001). N- A’-Pog’ shows a statistically significant increase in non-extraction group (P=0.046). Soft tissue thickness in chin increases in extraction group and decreases in non-extraction group.
Conclusion: The results indicate that premolar extraction will have a flattening effect on the midface. With proper diagnosis and treatment planning, premolar extractions have high potential to improve the facial profile.

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Use of the continuous glucose monitoring system in the management of hypoglicemia in Insulin autoimmune syndrome

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0011

Background: Insulin autoimune syndrome (IAS), also known as Hirata’s disease, is a rare cause of spontaneous hyperinsulinemic hypoglicemia characterised by the presence of autoantibodies directed against human insulin (IAA).
Case Report: A 48-year-old Caucasian female patient with IAS was studied in two different periods, for 7 days each, using a continuous monitoring system (CGM) under various treatment regimens, i.e diet modification and corticosteroids therapy.
Discussions: The use of CGM in autoimmune hypoglycemia is encouraged and must be taken into consideration in order to prevent episodes of hypoglicemia. Including of IAS and quantification of IAA in differential diagnosis in patients with hypoglicemia episodes and negative imaging results can prevent patients from going through unnecessary procedures.

 

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Abdominal wall metastases due to a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: case report and literature review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0010

Introduction: At the time of diagnosis, most patients with lung cancer are in an inoperable stage, with distant metastases. Most often, these patients have metastases to the brain, adrenal glands, liver, or bones. This article presents the case of a patient with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastases in the abdominal wall.
Case presentation: A 67-year-old patient came to our service reporting the existence of a tumor 5 cm in diameter, located at the level of the abdominal wall, without other clinical symptoms. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. The postoperative evolution was favorable, with the patient discharged on the third postoperative day. Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Conclusions: The appearance of a tumor in the abdominal wall of patients with NSCLC may raise the suspicion of metastasis at this level.

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Prosthetic Management of Acquired Dentate Maxillectomy Defects: A Clinical Case Series

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0009

Acquired maxillectomy defects produce hypernasal speech, food, and liquid regurgitation into the nasal cavity, impaired deglutition and mastication, and cosmetic deformity. Furthermore, patients with acquired maxillary defects face psychosocial stigma, which has a negative impact on their quality of life. Prosthetic rehabilitation of such defects is required for stomatognathic system restoration and oroantral communication obturation. This case series discusses the fabrication of surgical, interim, and definitive obturator prostheses to restore the acquired dentate maxillectomy defects of three cancer patients. All patients had their treatment in the prosthodontics department of the RUHS College of Dental Sciences. The surgical obturator prosthesis was made before surgery, whereas the interim and definitive obturators were made one month and six months after surgery, respectively. The surgical obturator formed a shield between the surgical pack and the oral cavity. After the surgical obturator and packing were removed, an interim obturator was inserted for three to six months to allow the surgical site to heal. After the surgical site had healed, the fabrication of the definitive obturator began. Prosthetic rehabilitation with obturator prostheses sealed the acquired tissue defects of the palate and restored swallowing, speaking, chewing capacity, and cosmetic value, as well as significantly improved the quality of life of these patients.

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Ethanolic Extract of Edamame (Glycine max L. merril) Enhance Second Degree Burn Wound Healing trough Modulating of Hydroxiproline Levels and Increasing Epithelial Thickness

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0007

Objective: Burns has become a global health problem because it causes about 180.000 deaths worldwide every year. In developing countries, silver sulfadiazine cream is usually used as drug management for second-degree burns, but it is expensive, so several herbal treatments have developed recently. The seed of edamame has genistein compounds that can increase collagen synthesis. The antioxidant component also enhances the burn wound healing process. The study aims to prove the effectiveness of ethanolic extract of edamame’s seed in the second-degree burn wound healing process.
Methods: Burn wound was made by applying hot aluminum (70 °C) coin on the skin rat. The negative control group (C-) was given Na-CMC 0.5%, the positive control group (C+) was given cream silver sulfadiazine, the treatment groups T1, T2, T3, and T4 were given an ethanolic extract of edamame with the concentration of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% for 15 days. Hydroxyproline levels were evaluated by hydroxyproline biochemistry assay, the epithelial thickness was observed on histopathological preparations with HE staining.
Results: The results showed that the hydroxyproline levels on the 16th were modulated, while epithelial thickness was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusions: We conclude that the certain concentration of ethanolic extract of edamame (Glycine max L. Merril) was effectively enhanced the second-degree burn wound healing by modulating hydroxyproline levels and increasing epithelial thickness.

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Pier Abutment: Bridge the gap with Non rigid connector – A clinical case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0008

Pier abutment is defined as a freestanding abutment with edentulous space on both sides. This case report described the rehabilitation of a patient who presented to the department with the primary complaint of missing teeth and difficulty in mastication. Intraoral examination revealed missing right maxillary canine and the second premolar, with the lone standing first premolar acting as a pier abutment. To reduce the stress transferred to the abutment and prosthetic assembly, a non-rigid (Tenon-mortise) connector was used in the case, with a keyway (mortise) distal to the pier abutment and a key (Tenon) mesial to the distal pontic.

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Chest wall secondary chondrosarcoma caused by malignant degeneration of an enchondroma: case report and literature review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0006

Introduction: Enchondromas are benign tumors originating in the cartilaginous tissue of the hyaline gristle, rarely located in the chest wall. They sometimes undergo a sarcomatous transformation, becoming secondary chondrosarcomas.
Case presentation: We present the case of a 53-year-old patient who, following a chest computed tomography scan performed after a thoracic trauma, was diagnosed with an osteolytic tumor at the chondrocostal junction of rib 4. Surgery was performed, with partial straight resection of ribs 3–5. Histopathological examination of the resection piece identified the existence of a chest wall chondrosarcoma on the background of malignant degeneration of an enchondromatosis lesion. The postoperative evolution was favorable, and the patient was discharged on the eighth postoperative day.
Conclusion: In patients with even asymptomatic chest wall enchondromas, periodic clinical evaluation of these lesions is required, given their risk of malignant degeneration.

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Rehabilitation of maxillary arch with attachment-retained reinforced single complete denture

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0003

Introduction: Fracture of maxillary complete denture is a common problem for dentists and denture wearers, occurring especially when it is opposing mandibular natural teeth or fixed and implant-sustained restorations; to prevent it, various methods and materials are available.
Case presentation: This case is of a patient losing his old maxillary removable partial denture due to the mobility of the frontal abutments. Considering the age of the patient and the status of the mandibular arch, completely restored and having a mix of natural teeth, fixed and implant-sustained restorations, the functional and esthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary arch, and also the long-term resistance of the denture, are a serious prosthetic challenge. An association between ball attachments, metal-casted reinforcement and masking agents for both are described, underlying their role in the treatment’s succes.
Conclusion: The age and health status of the patient and the situation of the mandibular arch imposed the construction of a functional, strong and stable maxillary denture; the technique described in this article offers a good functional and esthetical result and benefits the patient, even if the implant-prosthetic therapy is not available.

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The influence of transport condition and processing time on plasma ammonia results

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0005

Objective: Ammonia is extremely unstable in blood specimens and has special requirements during transport, processing and storage. The aim of our study was to determine the stability of ammonia in EDTA K3 blood samples and to establish a protocol for sample handling.
Methods: In this study, 36 healthy subjects and 47 inpatients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Two peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers (Sample A1 and A2) and one peripheral blood sample was collected from the inpatients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Sample B). Sample A1 and B were transported in ice bath within 15 minutes of blood collection, centrifuged immediately and processed. The sample was re-centrifuged after 15 minutes and a second ammonia result was obtained. Sample A2 was transported at room temperature and stored between 2 and 4 hours, centrifuged and plasma ammonia measurement was performed. The sample was re-spun after 15 minutes and a fourth ammonia result was obtained.
Results: In our study, in healthy group the difference between sample A2 and set point value (on ice, 15 minutes) is 25.08 µg/dl, showing an increase of 55.29%. After another 15 minutes, an increase of 82.02% was observed compared with the standard value. In diabetes mellitus group, after 30 minutes of blood collection, an increase of 11% over the set point value was observed.
Conclusions: The blood specimen should be transported on ice to the laboratory and analyzed within 15 minutes of blood collection due to plasma ammonia spontaneously increase.

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