Congenital Malformations of the Renourinary System — Risk Factors for the Development of Urinary Tract Infections, a Screening That is Required to Be Performed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in infants and children, with a significant consequence on the quality of life and health [1]. Congenital urinary tract abnormalities are the most common cause of UTI in children. The most frequent kidney abnormalities encountered during childhood are: obstructions of urinary tract (urethral valves, ureteropelvic and ureterovesical junctions’ obstructions), and dysfunctional voiding (vesicoureteral reflux) [2]. Primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has an incidence of 20–60% among children with urinary tract infection. An early diagnosis of VUR is very important, as its missing recognition or a delayed diagnosis can lead to reflux nephropathy (RN) referring to renal scarring, as a cause of chronic renal failure in 5–40% of children aged below 16 years [3]. An antenatal screening with an accurate diagnosis followed by an immediately postnatal abdominal ultrasound made that these malformations to be diagnosed early [4] and decrease the number of urinary tract infections and their recurrences. Thus, since the neonatal period we can decide which child will be further monitored, which will receive medical treatment and which will require surgery [4].[More]

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