Tag Archives: acute heart failure

Characteristics of Sleep Apnea Assessed Before Discharge in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Heart Failure

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2017-0003

Objectives. Evaluation of the characteristics of sleep apnea (SA) in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure, considering that undiagnosed SA could contribute to early rehospitalization.
Methods. 56 consecutive patients (13 women, 43 men, mean age 63.12 years) with acute heart failure, in stable condition, underwent nocturnal polygraphy before hospital discharge. The type and severity of SA was determined. Besides descriptive statistics, correlations between the severity of SA and clinical and paraclinical characteristics were also analyzed (t-test, chi-square test, significancy at alpha < 0.05).
Results. 12 (21.4%) subjects were free of SA (AHI – apnea-hipopnea index <5/h), 15 (26.7%) had mild SA (AHI=5-14/h), 17 (30.3%) had moderate SA (AHI 15-30/h), and 12 (21.4 %) had severe SA (AHI>30/h). The apnea was predominantly obstructive (32 cases vs. 12 with central SA). Comparing the patients with mild or no SA with those with severe SA, we did not find statistically significant correlations (p>0.05) between the severity of SA and the majority of main clinical and paraclinical characteristics – age, sex, BMI, cardiac substrates of heart failure, comorbidities. Paradoxically, arterial hypertension (p=0.028) and atrial fibrillation (p=0.041) were significantly more prevalent in the group with mild or no SA.
Conclusions. Before discharge, in the majority of patients hospitalized with acute heart failure moderate and severe SA is present, and is not related to the majority of patient related factors. Finding of significant SA in this setting is important, because its therapy could play an important role in preventing readmissions and improving prognosis.

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The Value of a Simplified Lung Ultrasound Protocol in the Pre-Discharge Evaluation of Patients Hospitalized with Acute Heart Failure

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2016-0039

Optimal timing of hospital discharge in patient with acute heart failure (AHF) is an important factor of preventing rehospitalizations.
Aim. To evaluate the value of a simplified lung ultrasound (LUS) protocol in assessing pre-discharge status of patients with AHF, correlating the US findings with the values of NT-proBNP levels.
Methods. 24 patients (18 men, 6 women, mean age 68,2 years) hospitalized with acute heart failure underwent LUS examination in the afternoon of the day before hospital discharge, applying a simplified LUS protocol, using three basal examination areas on the right side (anterior, lateral and posterior) and two basal examination areas on the left side (lateral and posterior). The LUS score was represented by the sum of B lines. In the next morning the value of NT-proBNP was also determined. The correlation between LUS findings and NT-proBNP values was analyzed using Fisher`s exact test (significant if alpha<0,05).
Results. 6 patients had <15 B lines, 16 patients had >15 B lines and 2 patients had pleural effusion on LUS, while 16 patients had the value of NT-proBNP >1000pg/ml at discharge. The results of LUS examination correlated significantly (p=0.0013) with the NT-proBNP values – only one patient not having increased NT-proBNP in the group with >15 B lines.
Conclusions. Despite a relatively good clinical status, the majority of patients had high NT-proBNP values at the time of hospital discharge. LUS proved to be a useful tool in identifying patients with subclinical congestion reflected also by the high NT-proBNP levels. These patients may need a prolongation of hospitalization and/or a more careful follow-up to prevent early readmission.

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Clinical Presentation and Precipitating Factors for Acute Heart Failure Hospitalization

Introduction: Acute heart failure syndromes are the most common cause of hospitalization in patients over 65 year. The number of hospitalizations for heart failure has tripled over the last three decades and it is expected to grow further.
Matherials and methods: We followed 390 patients, with an average age of 69.2 yrs, admitted in the Cardiology Department of Internal Medicine Clinic IV of Târgu Mureș, from January 2009 till January 2010 for treatment of the acute heart failure. The aim of this study was the analization of the clinical presentation and the precipitating factors of the heart failure at these patients.
Results and discussions: The most common clinical presentation at this category of patients is decompensated heart failure (peripherial oedema/congestion). In this particular case over two thirds of patients have history of heart failure (p < 0.0001). Hypertensive heart failure is a common finding in the novo cases (p = 0.0004). Cardiogenic shock is relatively rare form at this group but with very high hospital mortality. The most common trigger is infection, that frequently causes acute heart failure syndromes, mostly right heart failure in patients with pulmonary cardiopathy (p < 0.003). It is the most frequently identified trigger, both, in worsening chronic heart failure (p = 0.0002) and de novo heart failure group (p = 0.251).
Conclusions: The prevalence of triggers varies considerably depending on the target population, but infections, arrhythmias, elevated blood pressure and non-compliance remain frequent causes of acute heart failure syndromes.

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