Tag Archives: depression

Clinical and Psychological Correlations between Job Loss and Depressive Experience

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0062

Introduction: Stressful life events have a negative effect on mental health. Job loss is an event with a psychotraumatic character. Identification of the main sources of stress faced by the individual is essential in the management of depression.
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the main risk factors that play a role in the onset and maintenance of depression.
Material and methods: we made a prosepctive study including 68 outpatients aged over 18, recently diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), without psychotic features, with initiated antidepressant treatment, being in evidence of First Clinic of Psychiatry Tirgu-Mures, between 01.01.2013-31.12.2013. To assess the severity of depression and to measure the antidepressant treatment efficacy we used Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) at study onset, respectively at endpoint. The parameters followed were: HAM-D17 score, response to treatment, the mean number of hospitalizations in a year.
Results: The group included 82.35% women and 17.65% men, mostly from urban areas, aged between 35 and 68, with a HAM-D17 score between 24 and 27. The major stressful life events inventory shows that 20.58 % of the patients were unemployed. The observed effects were more extensive in men.
Conclusions: How stressful life events exert their influence on mood is complex. The onset of depression often seems to coincide with a stressful event, although sometimes the event is only the revelator of an episode ready to trigger. The findings indicate the need of prevention politics for relapse of the disease, which is a disadvantage regarding the re-employment.

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Pain and Distress in Cancer Patients

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0057

Background: A significant number of patients with cancer suffer from anxiety and depressive disorder. Perceived emotional distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms are significantly more frequent in cancer patients with pain than in patients without pain. Despite their high prevalence cancer pain and distress are frequently undertreated.
Material and method: Thirty two oncology patients were included in the study who were receiving concurrent oncologic and pain treatment in the Oncology Clinic TgMures. Patient demographic and clinical information was obtained from medical records and patient report. Patients were screened for pain scores using the Visual Analog Scale and distress scores, using the Distress Thermometer.
Results: The gender proportion of the sample is: 38% female, 62% male. More than 75% of the sample was over 50 years of age , and more than half of the patients (59.3%) had metastatic disease. Significant decreasing trend were seen for pain score difference before and after the pain treatment was reassessed (dosage increase or conversion) (p<0.0001), and decreasing trend seen for distress score (p<0.0001) also.
Conclusions: Pain and distress occurred concomitant in this population. An adequate pain management and pain reassessment contributes to improve the cancer patient emotional distress score, anxiety and depressive symptoms. An accurate screening instrument can facilitate the recognition of patients who needs further assessment and psychiatric treatment.

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Association Between Increased Waist Circumference and Depression and Anxiety Trend

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0028

Introduction: Abdominal adiposity assessed by increased waist circumference and depression have both a high incidence and prevalence and are associated with increased general mortality and cardiovascular risk. Several studies showed a significant association between abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome and depression. Early detection of these associations is important for for prevention and treatment of this disease.
Material and method: Eighty patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional descriptive study. Waist circumference was measured in all patients and an increased waist circumference was considered for subjects with values higher than 80 cm in women and higher than 94 cm in men as. Patients completed standardized questionnaires HADS for assessment of depression and anxiety. A depression (D) score higher than 10 points showed a trend to depression while an anxiety (A) score higher than 10 indicated a tendency to anxiety. The association between increased waist circumference, depression and anxiety was studied.
Results: We interviewed 80 patients, 34 (43%) men (mean age 62+/-6.43) and 46 (57%) women (mean age 59+/-5.16). Increased waist circumference was recorded in 22 men, and in 30 women. We noticed a good association between increased waist circumference and both depression (p=0.0006, RR=2.007, 95%CI 1.24-3.24) and anxiety (p=0.017, RR=2.046, 95%CI 1.21-3.45). We found both anxiety and depression risks rather equal in men, while in women we observed a higher depression risk.
Conclusions: Increased waist circumference is associated to depression and anxiety tendency in both genders. Depression trend is more powerful in women, while in men both depression and anxiety seen to have an equal frequency. Psychotherapy should be added to lifestyle changes in patients with abdominal adiposity.

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Correlations Between Depression, Cognitive Status, Functional Scores, Disability and Lesion Load in Multiple Sclerosis Treated with Interferon Beta 1a

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0016

Introduction: Depression and cognitive impairment are the most frequent mental disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyse the main determinants of depression in multiple sclerosis.
Materials and methods: Thirty-two patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), treated with Interferon Beta 1a, without relapses and corticosteroid treatment in the last 30 days, were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 35.4±9.2 years, M/F ratio 0.33. Depression level was evaluated by the Romanian version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the cognitive function with Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test 3 (PASAT 3), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). The functional status and disability level of the patients were evaluated with Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Expanded Disability Status Scale. In all patients a cerebral MRI with intravenous contrast administration was performed using a 1.5T MRI device.
Results: Twenty-three patients were free of depression (score 1-10), 4 patients presented mild mood disturbance (score 11-16), 3 borderline clinical depression (score 17-20) and 2 moderate depression (score 21-30). The mean BDI score was 8.71±7.16. BDI score correlated significantly with EDSS (R=0.38, p=0.03), PASAT 3 (R=-0.42, p=0.01), SDMT (R=-0.58, p=0.0007), Timed 25-Foot Walk (R=0.43, p=0.01) and 9-Hole Peg Test (R=0.45, p=0.008). From the EDSS functional scores, significant correlations were found with the urinary score (R=0.4, p=0.01) and sensitive score (R=0.49, p=0.004). BDI score correlated significantly with the total number of T2 lesions (R=0.31, p=0.05) while there was no correlation with the number of active lesions.
Conclusions: The main determinants of depression in RRMS patients are the cognitive impairment, the affection of fine hand movements (9-HP), gait impairment (T25FT) and bladder and sensitive dysfunction.

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