Major depressive disorder stands as a profound challenge in the realm of psychiatric illnesses disrupting the well-being and daily existence of affected individuals. This heterogeneous condition continues to baffle researchers due to the elusive nature of its full neurological mechanisms. This review delves into the complex landscape of major depressive disorder, exploring the diverse therapeutic avenues available, from the nuanced realms of psychotherapy to the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches that have been the focus of extensive research. In the relentless pursuit of relief for those afflicted, substantial efforts and resources are tirelessly channeled into the exploration of novel antidepressants and the refinement of existing therapeutic protocols. This review juxtaposes the efficiencies of existing treatments, unraveling their comparative effectiveness, and shedding light on their respective strengths and limitations. Even so, the question remains, how well are we managing the treatment of major depressive disorder, and which is the best option not only to treat this condition but also to reach full remission. Consequently, we have compiled findings on treatment selections and how efficient they are in relation to each other. The more we understand how to treat depression effectively the more we can improve the quality of life of individuals affected by this disorder. By comprehensively evaluating the diverse modalities, this review aims to guide clinicians and researchers toward evidence-based decisions, facilitating the formulation of individualized and targeted treatment protocols.
Objective: To investigate the association between testosterone deficiency and depressive and/or anxiety symptoms.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the urology outpatient clinic from Ludus County Hospital. A set of validated questionnaires ((International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS)) were self-administrated. Inclusion criteria: age > 40 years. Exclusion criteria: any relevant psychiatric, cardiovascular, or cancer comorbidity. Statistical analyzes were performed using the statistical software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 23, Chicago, IL, USA).
Results: From the total of 55 participants included in the study, 23 (41.8%) had testosterone deficiency. Most were from the 60-69 years decade, 23 participants (41.8%), and the mean age was 59.3 (SD 9.03) years. Eleven (20%) patients had depressive symptoms according to the depression subscale, of these, 7 had mild symptoms and 4 according to Zung SDS. Testosterone deficiency was associated with an increased DASS-21 global score, p=0.021, and depression score, p=0.047.
Conclusions: Patients with testosterone deficiency are presenting symptoms of depression. Therefore, these patients need a multi-disciplinary approach that should include a psychological evaluation before making a further management decision.
Multiple sclerosis is an unpredictable neurologic disease affecting 2.8 million people worldwide. Individuals with MS experience multiple physical and psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, fatigue, and pain that impact their general functioning and quality of life. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of psychological interventions in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms associated with the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Cognitive and behavioral techniques are also useful in relieving the specific symptoms of multiple sclerosis. However, few studies have captured the psychological processes involved in reducing the symptoms of depression and anxiety, which is why greater concern is recommended in future studies in order to develop better psychological interventions tailored for patients with multiple sclerosis.
Although the term of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is often used interchangeably with motor neuron disease, ALS is universally accepted as a multisystem disorder. Cognitive impairment is an acknowledged feature of ALS, affecting language, memory and behaviour, and apathy is considered to be the prevalent behavioural alteration in ALS. It can be divided in three subtypes: executive, emotional and initiation apathy. Out of the three subtypes, initiation apathy is common among patients with ALS. Even in patients that do not meet the criteria for ALS with frontotemporal dementia, low-key neuropsychiatric and cognitive changes can be observed. Apathy has also been found to be systematically associated with disruptions in medial frontal cortex and subcortical structures in several neuroimaging studies that confirm the pre-existing brain lesions in the early stages of this disease. Thus, there is a growing body of evidence that motor signs and symptoms are accompanied or even preceded by cognitive and behavioural alterations, and screening for non-motor signs and symptoms can be clinically relevant.
Chronic disease can severely impact an individual’s quality of life, influencing both physical and mental health. Major depressive disorder is one of the most common diagnoses among patients with physical conditions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a prominent evidence-based psychological treatment for depression. The objective of the present review is to summarize current research on the efficacy of this intervention in medically ill patients with comorbid depression. First, the relation between chronic disease and depression will be briefly described. Following this introduction, studies examining the efficacy of cognitive and behavioral techniques for reducing depressive symptoms in patients with frequent chronic diseases will be outlined. Subsequently, the effects of the psychological treatment for different patient populations will be analyzed. Finally, a few recommendations for adapting the intervention protocols to various target groups of people with specific characteristics will be provided in order to improve the mental health of patients with chronic medical conditions.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with T2D. Depression and anxiety were assessed by questionnaires (PHQ-9, CES-D and GAD-7 respectively), cognitive function by the MoCA test. Additionally, 503 patients’ clinic charts were separately analyzed in order to compare the data recorded in the charts with that resulted from the active assessment.
Results: In the screening study 216 subjects with T2D were included (62.2 ± 7.8 years old). 34.3% of them had depression and 7.4% presented major depression. 44.9% of patients with T2D had anxiety (9.2% major anxiety) and this was highly correlated with depression (OR: 21.139, 95%CI: 9.767-45.751; p<0.0001). Women had significantly higher prevalence of depression and anxiety compared to men (42.1% vs. 21.7%; p: 0.0021 and 51.1% vs. 34.9%; p: 0.02), but severe depression was similar between genders (9.0% vs. 4.8%; p: 0.29). Significantly more patients had depression and anxiety than recorded in their charts (34.3% vs. 13.9% and 44.9% vs. 9.3%,respectively; p<0.0001 for both). 69.0% of T2D patients had mild, 6.0% had moderate and none had severe cognitive dysfunction, respectively. Significantly more patients with depression and anxiety had mild and moderate cognitive impairment (p: 0.03 and p: 0.04, respectively).
Conclusions: Patients with T2D had a high prevalence of comorbid depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment. Depression and anxiety were significantly more frequent in women. These conditions were under-evaluated and/or under-reported.
Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate if depressed patients have an increased level of morning serum cortisol compared to healthy persons and to assess the relation between high levels of cortisol and prosocial coping mechanisms, in the context of Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder.
Methods: Morning serum cortisol level was measured in 15 depressed patients hospitalized in First Clinic of Psychiatry Tirgu Mures and in 15 healthy controls. We have analyzed 3 behavioral coping strategies with The Strategic Approach of Coping Scale (SACS): social joining (SJ), seeking social support (SSS) and cautious action (CA).
Results: 30 participants were included, the mean value of the cortisol for females was Mcort_female= 16.38 µg/dl and for males Mcort_male= 16.31 µg/dl. Independent sample t test showed that the cortisol level in depressed group was higher than the cortisol level in the control group: t = 2.394, p < 0.05 (0.024). In the MDD group the Spearman correlation between the level of serum cortisol and prosocial coping strategies was: rcortisol-SJ= -0.519; rcortisol-SSS= -0.107; rcortisol-CA= -0.382.
Conclusions: Although the studied sample patient was small, we can conclude that the patients with Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder have an increased level of morning serum cortisol compared to healthy persons. In these patients there is an inverse correlation between the increased levels of morning cortisol and the frequency of use of the effective prosocial coping strategies, particularly the social joining type.
Introduction: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an accepted outcome measure in patients with depression.
Aim: Our study aimed at assessing QoL in depressed elderly patients with cluster C PDs, admitted to Psychiatric Clinic No II Targu Mures. Cluster C PDs is the most frequent diagnosis on axis II for depression.
Material and method: A sample of thirty elderly in-patients with cluster C PDs and depression was studied. Mental disorders were assessed based on DSM IV criteria, Hamilton scale of depression and SCID II (structured clinical interview for DSM). QoL was assessed with the aid of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQoL-Bref), and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF).
Results: We formed high co-morbidity among depression and cluster C PD, especially dependent PD, which was associated with poor QoL. The WHOQoL physical health and social functioning were significantly associated with GAF. Conclusion and Discussion: PD symptoms in elderly patients appear to operate as co-factor that amplify or exacerbate the impact of depression on long-term functioning and QoL. We conclude that if co-morbid personality disorder is not treated, patients will respond less well to treatment for depression than do those without PD.
Background: Increasing evidence indicates that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease involving more than airflow obstruction. Systemic inflammation can initiate or worsen comorbid diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, diabetes, osteoporosis, lung cancer and depression.
Material and method: We explored the Medprax database, from an ambulatory care in order to obtain rates of comorbidities in COPD patients. Medprax electronic database is a locally developed system designed to fulfil the requirements of an integrated healthcare system. We identified a population of 9,659 patients (4472 men and 5187 women) aged ≥ 30 years registered between 01.01.2000 and 01.02.2010.
Results: The overall prevalence of COPD was 5.17% (384 men and 116 women). Compared to the non-COPD patients, COPD was found to be a significant risk factor in both sexes for cardiovascular events: ischemic heart disease (OR = 3.06, 95%CI 2.54–3.68), atrial fibrillation (OR = 2.70, 95%CI 2.12–3.43) and heart failure (OR = 4.49, 95%CI 3.74–5.40) regardless of age. Association with diabetes mellitus type 2 was extremely significant in COPD men (OR = 1.69, 95%CI 1.26–2.27), but not in COPD women. Significant correlation with osteoporosis (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.94–5.48) was found only in women over 60 years and men under 60. Pulmonary malignancy was found only in male COPD patient compared to non-COPD patients (OR = 5.04, 95%CI 2.02–12.44). The impact on
depressive disorders was noted only in younger COPD men (OR = 5.71, 95%CI 1.94–16.82).
Conclusions: Our results indicate that COPD is a risk factor for all these comorbid conditions and that in the management of COPD all these conditions need to be carefully evaluated.
Background: The risk of woman to present a depressive clinical picture increases in parallel with the approaching age of perimenopause.
Aim: The main purpose of the paper is to study correlations between symptoms of perimenoapuse and depressive episode occurance, taking into consideration the severity and the frequency of symptoms of perimenopause.
Material and methods: We have selected the cases by performing a screening to pacients with major depressive disorder, hospitalized in No. 1 Psychiatric Clinic, between 01.01.2007–31.12.2009.
Results: From the total patients admitted (1342) only 160 patients aged 34–55 years, voluntarily wanted to participate, representing 11.92% of all patients. Analyzing the severity of psychological symptoms we have obtained statistical significance in the age group 46–50 years: p = 0.0303. Analyzing the frequency of vasomotor symptoms by age group, we have obtained statistical significance in the age group 34–40 years: p = 0.006. Analyzing the frequency and severity of somatic symptoms by age groups, we have obtained statistical significance in the age group 34–40 years.
Conclusions: The rural environment proved to be a protective factor in the emergence of depressive disorders (P = 0.0189). Estimating the role of hormonal decline at patients aged over 40 years, helped us to understand that the emergence and evolution of clinical manifestations during perimenopause and menopause may be caused by fluctuations of central secretion of pituitary hormones and sex steroids.