Tag Archives: kindling

Lacosamide Reduces Seizure Severity but Increases Seizure Frequency in PTZ­-Kindled Rats

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2017-0037

Objective: This study evaluated the anticonvulsant action of lacosamide (LCS), a novel drug that was recently approved for the treatment of partial or secondarily generalized seizures, using an animal model of generalized epilepsy induced by repetitive pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) administration in rats. The main goal was to evaluate the behavioral pattern of lacosamide action by classifying seizures according to a modified Racine-scale. Furthermore, the reproducibility of the win-PTZ kindling model of epilepsy, a recently described variant of the standard PTZ-kindling model, was also assessed.
Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=16) were divided into two groups and underwent the win-PTZ-kindling protocol in two independent trials. After finishing the kindling procedure, all animals, which presented stage 5 seizures were tested for the anticonvulsant action of lacosamide at three different doses (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg).
Results: The maximal severity of seizures decreased and the latency to stage 3-­5 seizures increased when the animals were treated with lacosamide at a single dose of 10 mg/kg compared to saline pretreatment (p < 0.05), both parameter reflecting an anticonvulsant action of the drug. Unfortunately, the number of stage 3-5 seizures also increased, but not significantly. The win-PTZ kindling model showed an adequate reproducibility between different trials, however, the number of fully kindled rats was lower than previously reported.
Conclusions: Lacosamide showed a convincing anticonvulsant action in the win-PTZ kindling model of epilepsy by preventing the generalization of seizures. The win-PTZ kindling model was proved to be useful for studying epileptogenesis and the anticonvulsant action of drugs.

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Cortical Epileptogenesis of Slowly Kindled Freely Moving Rats

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0003

Objective. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that can be caused by many underlying pathologies. The epileptic and interictal manifestations that appear during the progression of chronic epilepsy are still not understood completely. One of the most frequent forms of this disease is temporal lobe epilepsy in which is clear involvement of the hippocampal formation. In order to study the electrografic progression of untreated seizures we used amygdala kindling in freely moving rats.
Methods. Seven animals were implanted with bilateral hippocampal and prefrontal electrodes. A bipolar electrode, implanted in the lateral nuclei of the left amygdala was used for stimulation. The kindled group of animals was stimulated daily with the minimum current intensity needed to reach the afterdischarge threshold. Behavioral changes during kindling were scored according to the Racine scale.
Results. The average seizure severity on the Racine scale was 2.6±0.4 by day 6 and 4.4±0.6 by day 20. The first spontaneous seizures appeared after 31 days of stimulation. During spontaneous seizures the preictal spike full width at half maximum increased gradually from 51±4msec to 110±5msec (p < 0.05) whereas the amplitude of the negative field potential deflection increased by 62% (p < 0.05).
|Conclusions. Our study showed that the progression of temporal lobe epilepsy, as seen in humans, can be reproduced in the kindling model with high fidelity. This study confirms in vivo the increase in preictal spike duration as well as the increase of the amplitude of negative field potential deflection during the preictal period.

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