Tag Archives: prevalence

Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes from the Central Part of Romania

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2016-0014

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients with T2D. Depression and anxiety were assessed by questionnaires (PHQ-9, CES-D and GAD-7 respectively), cognitive function by the MoCA test. Additionally, 503 patients’ clinic charts were separately analyzed in order to compare the data recorded in the charts with that resulted from the active assessment.
Results: In the screening study 216 subjects with T2D were included (62.2 ± 7.8 years old). 34.3% of them had depression and 7.4% presented major depression. 44.9% of patients with T2D had anxiety (9.2% major anxiety) and this was highly correlated with depression (OR: 21.139, 95%CI: 9.767-45.751; p<0.0001). Women had significantly higher prevalence of depression and anxiety compared to men (42.1% vs. 21.7%; p: 0.0021 and 51.1% vs. 34.9%; p: 0.02), but severe depression was similar between genders (9.0% vs. 4.8%; p: 0.29). Significantly more patients had depression and anxiety than recorded in their charts (34.3% vs. 13.9% and 44.9% vs. 9.3%,respectively; p<0.0001 for both). 69.0% of T2D patients had mild, 6.0% had moderate and none had severe cognitive dysfunction, respectively. Significantly more patients with depression and anxiety had mild and moderate cognitive impairment (p: 0.03 and p: 0.04, respectively).
Conclusions: Patients with T2D had a high prevalence of comorbid depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment. Depression and anxiety were significantly more frequent in women. These conditions were under-evaluated and/or under-reported.

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The Prevalence of Supernumerary Teeth in a Group of Patients in Western Romania

Objective: The objective of this article is to study the types of supernumerary teeth and their prevalence in a group of patients in Western Romania.
Material and methods: The study group consisted of various patients, who attended the Department of Paedodontics and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Timişoara, Romania. The number, location, classification, bilateral symmetry and impaction of supernumerary teeth were evaluated. Furthermore, we evaluated the development of these teeth and we also established the therapeutic decision for each clinical case. Final diagnosis was based upon clinical examination, occlusal radiographs, panoramic radiographs or cone beam CT.
Results: From a total of 700 examined patients, with mixed and permanent dentition aged between 6 and 13 years, 21 (3%) patients had supernumerary teeth. A total of 25 supernumerary teeth were recorded. The distribution of supernumerary teeth according to jaws showed a higher prevalence in the maxilla: 80% (n=20) were located in the upper jaw, while 20% (n=5) were found in the mandible. In the upper arch, the most frequent supernumerary teeth were the lateral incisors 45% (n=9), followed by the central incisors (mesiodentes) 35% (n=7). Smaller percentages were located in the premolar region 15% (n=3) and distomolar region 5% (n=1). The distribution of supernumerary teeth according to bilateral symmetry was 24% (n=6) bilaterally and 76% (n=19) unilaterally. Regarding their status, the majority of the supernumerary teeth, 96% (n=24) were erupted and only 4% (n=1) were impacted, being associated with the failure of eruption of the left central incisor. Tooth extraction was the treatment of choice in 100% of the cases. Most of the supernumerary teeth, 96% (n=24) were completely developed and only 4% (n=1) showed an incomplete root.
Conclusions: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 3%. This result is comparable to similar studies in the literature, among Caucasians. Future research is required to evaluate a larger group of patients.

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Clinical Study on the Prevalence of Tooth Decay in a Group of Children in First Year at Elementary School in Tîrgu Mureș

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of caries in a group of 7 year-old schoolchildren.
Methods: We carried out a survey on a group of 385 children, all pupils in first year at elementary school in Tîrgu Mureş. For the assessment of dental health we used the DMF index: DMF for permanent teeth, and dmf for temporary teeth.
Results: The average value of dmf index was 4.81 (SD 2.82) and the average value of DMF index was 0.92 (SD 1.05).
Conclusions: This study shows that in Tîrgu Mureș the actual level and pattern of dental caries development is extremely severe and there is an urgent need to improve and provide oral health through a preventive program.

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Prevalence and Characteristics of Tooth Agenesis in Permanent Dentition of Subjects from Tîrgu Mureş

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2013-0043

Background: Identification of the characteristics of tooth agenesis is an important component in the understanding of the ethiology of this common developmental dental anomaly. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and the characteristics of tooth agenesis among patients from Tîrgu Mureş.
Material and method: The present study is retrospective and descriptive, based on the evaluation of the patient’s dental records from 2004 to 2012 belonging to a pediatric dental office from Tîrgu Mureş. Orthopantomograms and anamnestic data of 947 children and young adults (365 male and 582 female) were analyzed.
Results: The prevalence of tooth agenesis, excluding third molars, was 7.39%. The difference between the genders was statistically not significant (p = 0.09). The most frequently missing teeth were the upper second incisors, followed by the lower second premolars. The difference between the distribution of agenesis in the upper and lower jaws was statistically significant (p <0.0001). The distribution of dental agenesis between the anterior region and the lateral region of the maxilla and the mandible showed significant differences (p <0.0001). Symmetrical distribution of tooth agenesis was found more frequently (54.54%) than assymetrical distribution.
Conclusions: The maxillary anterior region and the mandibular lateral region were the most affected by dental agenesis in the permanent dentition of the studied population. The maxilla was more affected than the mandible and bilateral forms of agenesis were more frequently than unilateral forms. The more extreme forms of agenesis were found amongst female.

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