Tag Archives: prostate cancer

Metastatic Prostate Cancer with Highest Reported PSA Level

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2016-0044

Introduction: Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, the second most common cancer among men, and the most common cancer in men in Europe. Metastatic prostate cancer among young patients represents the rarest of the newly diagnosed prostate cancer, with few reports of cases with a longer survival.
Case presentation: We present the case of a 59 year-old male who was referred with back pain over the last month. Digital rectal examination highlighted an enlarged and totally indurated prostate of 4×4.5 cm, while abdomino-pelvic X-rays showed osteoblastic metastases in the spine and pelvis bones. Laboratory examinations revealed a Prostate Specific Antigen level of 7941 ng/ml. Prostate biopsy histology showed a bilateral prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 8. Androgen deprivation therapy and daily administration of biphosphonates were prescribed. After two years of treatment, the Prostate Specific Antigen level decreases to 8 ng/ml.
Conclusions: We reported the highest Prostate Specific Antigen level in a patient under 60 years old with metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate cancer remains an important public health problem due to the aggressiveness of the disease and advanced stage upon diagnosis. Prostate Specific Antigen is mandatory to evaluate, to have a reference level in order to prevent metastatic prostate cancer in young patients at diagnosis.

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Role of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate in the Management of Prostate Cancer

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2016-0008

Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.
Materials and methods: At the Urology Clinic of Targu Mures we performed a total of 474 TURP over a two year period (2011-2013). The patients had a mean age of 71.857 years, and the indications were PCa with bladder outlet obstruction or bladder outlet obstruction with unknown causes but some with suspicion of PCa.
Results: In case of 474 patients with TURP performed for bladder outlet obstruction, the histopathology findings were the following: 61 cases with newly diagnosed PCa, some in spite of normal PSA values, 23 cases with already hormone treated prostate cancer, while in 50 cases TURP was preceded by prostate biopsy (in 8 cases with increased PSA and several negative biopsies, we could confirm PCa of the peripheral zone of the prostate).
Conclusion: TURP remains the elective surgical therapy of the bladder outlet obstruction, caused by BPH and even prostate cancer. Obtaining a greater volume of prostate tissue can help in the detection of prostate cancer in its early stages, especially in the transitional zone.

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Arylsulfatase A: An Important Metabolic Factor in Pathophysiology of Different Diseases

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0064

Arylsulfatase A (ARSA) is a lysosomal enzyme that plays an important role in catalysis of degradation of cerebrosidesulphate. The deficiency of this lysosomal enzyme causes an autosomal recessive disorder, called metachromatic leucodystrophy. However, a low ARSA activity can be observed in clinically healthy people, called ARSA pseudodeficiency. In our study we investigated the possible linkage between ARSA activity and sulfatide deficiency causing characteristic aspects of degenerative diseases, such as end stage kidney disease, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, Parkinson syndrome, prostate cancer and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. We used a spectrophotometric method to determine the activity of ARSA. This method of enzyme dosage is based on a 4 hour long hydrolysis of the ARSA enzyme on 4-nitrocatechol sulfate (p-NCS) substrate. The unit of this measurement is nmol/ml/4h. Our findings show significant values in type 2 diabetes, Parkinson syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The importance of sulfatide in these diseases is well-known, thus presumably the variation of the ARSA’s activity might play an important role in the pathophysiology of these diseases, involving a vicious cycle between sulfatide degradation andthese diseases.

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The Management of the Patient with Elevated Prostate Specific Antigen and a Negative Initial Prostate Biopsy

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0021

Background: The prostate cancer (PCa) is the second  most  common cancer amongst men. An elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) level can lead to PCa suspition, thus the confirmation has to be a histopathological one. However, not all increased PSA level means prostate cancer.
Material and Method: This retrospective study presents the results of 422 ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (PB) performed at the Clinic of Urology Târgu- Mureş, between 2011-2012. Inclusion criteria: patients with at least one negative PB and an elevated value of PSA.
Results: In a two year period, from the total of 422 PB (100%), in 179 (42.42%) patients the histopathological result was “negative”. In 154 (86%) of cases ultrasound guided biopsies were performed, mostly with an initial 6 core (98- 54.74% of patients). Average PSA level was 13.45 ng/ml (0.49-100 ng/ml), the histological findings confirmed PCa in 52.58% cases, normal prostatic tissue in 141 cases (78.77%), atypical small acinar proliferation in 12 patients (6.70%), prostate atrophy in 11 males (6.14%), benign prostatic hyperplasia in 10 cases (5.59%) and prostatitis in 5 cases (2.80%). In 30 cases (16.75%) rebiopsy was performed with a number of 10- 12 cores.
Conclusions: In order to increase PCa detection we should perform more cores during PB. In „negative” histopathological cases PSA should be monitorised and the biopsy should be repeated after 6 to 8 weeks from the initial biopsy. Patient’s compliance plays a vital role in the follow-up of the procedure.
Conclusions: ANG-2 serum levels were elevated in sepsis, being well correlated with PCT values and prognostic scores. ANG-2 should be considered as a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and the prognosis of this pathology.

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