Tag Archives: schizophrenia

Particular aspects of social integration among patients with schizophrenia

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0002

Objective: In this study we aim to identify characterize the social integration of patients with Schizophrenia in Romania and identify variables that influence their social integration.
Method: Charts from patients hospitalized in the Psychiatry Clinic 1, during 21 months, were studied: marital status, parenting, and family residence, the quality of the relationships with relatives, professional status and the association with a personality disorder. The associations were performed using the chi-square test. Windows excel and Graphpad.com were used for data processing.
Result: From the 116 patients selected, 30.17% were married; 71.4% have secondary and higher education; 21.6% were unemployed and did not have any social assistance income; 37.9% lived with families; 46.6% had children; 20.7% had appropriate family relationships; and 54.3% have a personality disorder. There was no association between the number of hospitalizations and the patient’s gender (p=0.59), between the personality type and higher education level (p=0.51). Having a personality disorder was not statistically associated with residential status (p=0.11). The chance of a patient living with his family is 2.5 times higher if the patient has a schizoid personality disorder.
Conclusion: Indicators such as marital status, parenting, family residence, employment, relationship with the family can be used to analyze the effectiveness of the treatment schemes that are conducted for the patients with schizophrenia.

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Clinical Evolution of Patients with Schizophrenia Associated with Addictive Disorders

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0033

Introduction: The prevalence of schizophrenia in the general population is about 0.3% -0.7% Pathological use of substances such as cocaine, alcohol, amphetamines and nicotine are common in schizophrenia with a lifetime prevalence of 80%. They tend to isolate themselves in an inner world, thus being prone to substance abuse. The most commonly used substances are: alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogens and cannabis.
Method: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive-analytical study on a group of 139 patients with a positive diagnosis of schizophrenia from the Psychiatry Clinic I of the Mureș County Clinical Hospital hospitalized between 01.01.2018-31.12.2019. The clinical and paraclinical data used were processed from observation sheets in the clinic archive. These were introduced and analyzed in the Microsoft Excel 2016 program, and the statistical test used was Chi Square in the Graph-Pad statistical analysis program.
Results: Most patients with schizophrenia have a schizoid (41%) and paranoid (32%) personality. Other types are: organic 25% (unstable and impulsive) and obsessive anxiety 2%. Due to the evolution of diseases, patients end up consuming psychoactive substances, tobacco and alcohol. A percentage of 48% of patients were tobacco consumers, 37% were alcohol consumers and 15% consumed psychoactive substances. Tobacco use is not a statistically significant factor in the recurrence of the disease.
Conclusions: Alcohol, tobacco and psychoactive substances are an important risk factor in the unfavorable evolution of the disease, most hospitalized patients are in the age group 50-59 years.

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Clinical Aspects of the Schizoaffective Disorder in Comparison with Schizophrenia After a 15-year Evolution

Background: Schizoaffective disorder is currently one of the debated nosological categories, nowadays existing more controversial suppositions regarding its ranging.
Aim: The assumption of this study was that schizoaffective disorder is a version of schizophrenic disorder.
Methods: In pursuit of this supposition, two groups of subjects were selected, called group A, which includes subjects diagnosed with current schizoaffective disorder – according to ICD 10 – and group B, who were diagnosed with current schizophrenia. The two groups were relatively analyzed aiming at socio-demographic and clinical parameters at first admission and clinical evolution and global functioning 15 years past the first episode.
Results: The results showed that there are differences on diagnosis at first hospitalization in subjects who subsequently developed schizoaffective disorder, which could have been produced by an episode of schizophrenia, an episode of acute and transient psychosis or an affective episode. Also, the long-term outcome of the subjects showed differences between the two groups regarding the number of hospitalizations – which is much higher in subjects from schizoaffective group than in those with schizophrenia. The schizoaffective disorder group shows superior professional and family functioning in comparison with the group diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Conclusions: The conclusion of this study is that schizoaffective disorder is a nosological entity different from schizophrenia. In order to clarify its nosological status, neurophysiologic, laboratory examinations and family studies are needed.

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Aspects of Suicide in Schizophrenia

Introduction: In the literature, autolytic risk in patients with schizophrenia was estimated at 10–40%, and up to 50% in studies that also refer to patients with schizoaffective disorders.
Purpose: To find the risk factors of suicide in this specific group of patients with schizophrenia who comitted suicide.
Material and methods: A retrospective study made on 53 patients with typical history of schizophrenia, who committed suicide in the 2000–2009 period.
Results and discussions: Of the 794 investigated suicide cases, 53 were patients with schizophrenia (6.7%), 54.7% were between 15–30 years and 66% were male. Marital status seems to play a major role in suicide genesis, 72.7% of the subjects being either unmarried, divorced, separated or widowed. Alcohol consumption was present in 26.1% of cases and smoking in 32.2% of cases.
Conclusions: Although the number of studied cases is too small to draw relevant conclusions, our study indicates that male gender, young age, unmarried status and rural origin act as risk factors for committing suicide.

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Psychological Autopsy — An Effective Method for the Positive Diagnosis of Suicide in Schizophrenia

Purpose: This paper aims to analyze suicide in schizophrenia in terms of application of psychological autopsy.
Material and methods: We studied 53 persons who committed suicide between 2000–2009. We carried a series of interviews with people close to the persons who committed suicide, to analyze the motivation behind the suicidal act. The method chosen for the interviews was empathic post-suicide listening in parallel with a questionnaire.
Results: Disorganized and paranoid types of schizophrenia have led to most victims. 22.6% of the persons who committed suicide had auditory hallucinations with imperative suiciding character.
Conclusions: Detecting suicidal motivations and their understanding plays an important role in shaping a socio-psychological or a psychopathological profile by interpreting sociological, familial parameters, with emphasis on the personal dynamics of selfdestructing behavior, adult characteristics and identification of the persons with an increased suicide risk.

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Schizophrenia: Social Cognition as a Predictive Factor of Social Performance?

Objectives: Schizophrenia is one of the conditions that affect social cognition and social functioning. These aspects are particularly important when assessing the prognosis and evolution of the disease. The main objective of the present study was to examine the role of social cognition for social functioning. We hypothesized that social cognition influences directly social functioning in schizophrenia.
Material and method: We assessed 31 subjects who have been admitted for the first time to the Timișoara Psychiatric Clinic between 1998 and 2007 and who have had within the last five years a stable diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10. The following parameters were analyzed: socio-demographic (gender, age of onset, level of schooling, marital and professional status), clinical symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale), social cognition (Social Cognition Rating Scale for Psychosis) and social functioning (Social Functioning Scale).
Results: The analysis of socio-demographic features show values similar to those cited in the international literature (gender distribution approximately equal, mean age of onset of 26.2 years, mean level of schooling of 11.77; 22.6% were married and all of the subjects were retired). BPRS scores indicated average values. Most of the subjects also had a social cognition and social functioning deficit. There is a direct correlation between social cognition and social functioning (r=0.46).
Conclusions: The deficit of social cognition in schizophrenia generates a decrease of social functioning.

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