Tag Archives: ultrasound

Ultrasound Guidance Versus Peripheral Neurostimulation for Brachial Plexus Block Anesthesia with Axillary Approach and Multiple Injection Technique

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2017-0025

Introduction: There are several approaches for brachial plexus anesthesia: supraclavicular, infraclavicular, interscalenic and axillary. Out of these, the axillary approach is considered to be the safest because of the low risk of lesioning the adjacent structures, low risk of phrenic nerve blockade or of producing an iatrogenic pneumothorax. The block can be performed by one single injection at the site, by two injections or by several injection, among each nerve of the plexus. Ultrasound was introduced in regional anesthesia since 1978, being used initially as an auxiliary method to peripheral neurostimulator.
Objectives: The evaluation of ultrasound efficiency as an auxiliary method for brachial plexus block performance, in terms of success rate, vascular punctures. The influence of obesity on performing time, total duration of the block, and success rate of brachial plexus block.
Material and method: Prospective, randomized study which enrolled adult patients, scheduled for surgical emergency or elective surgical intervention on upper limb with brachial plexus block by axillary approach, using either the peripheral nerve stimulation or the ultrasound guidance.
Results: We enrolled 160 patients, grouped in two sets- the ultrasound group= 82 patients (US) the neurostimulation group = 78 patients (NS). Vascular punctures were statistically significant different p= 0, 04. The success rate was not influenced by the obesity.
Conclusions: Ultrasound guidance makes axillary brachial plexus block safer, we can recommend ultrasound guidance as routine for axillary brachial plexus block. The obese patient can beneficiate by both methods of brachial plexus blockage.

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Dissection of the Cervico-Cerebral Arteries – Ultrasonographic Characteristics

Background: Dissection of the cervical and cerebral arteries represents the leading cause of non-atherosclerotic stroke in young adults. The diagnosis can be difficult as the presentation may be variable. The ultrasound (US) examination is the first diagnostic procedure, because is non invasive and informative.
The aim of this study was to analyse the ultrasonographical characteristics of the cervico-cerebral artery dissections (CCAD).
Patients and methods: We analyzed 8 consecutive cases of CCAD examined in the Ultrasound Laboratory of Neurology Clinic I from Tîrgu Mureş, Romania over a 3-year period. The mean age of the patients was 39.5±12.1 (min. 24, max. 60), the male/female ratio: 1.
Results: In 5 cases the diagnosis was established based on the ultrasound findings, in 2 cases was confirmed by angiography and in one case by MRI angiography. In 3 cases the CCAD occurred at the level of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA), in 2 cases at distal ICA, in one case the common carotid artery, in 1-1 cases the proximal and distal part of the vertebral arteries. The most frequent ultrasound finding suggestive for CCAD was the hypoechogenic wall haematoma (3 cases). The hyperechogenic intimal flap occurred in 2 cases, the classical double lumen only in one case. In three cases the ultrasound examination revealed only indirect signs of occlusion. In one case the ultrasound findings were not suggestive for ICA dissection, the diagnosis was confirmed based on the angiography findings.
Conclusions: Color duplex ultrasound examination is an important diagnostic method in the diagnosis of CCAD with good sensitivity and specificity. The most frequent ultrasound finding in CCAD is the hypoechogenic mural haematoma. In patients with suspected CAD and negative US, repeated US examinations and further diagnostic imaging, as angiography, MRI, MRI angiography must be performed.

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Combination of Ropivacaine and Lidocaine for Long Lasting Locoregional Anesthesia

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2014-0009

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of Ropivacaine 0.5% and Lidocaine 0.5% anestethic combination in performing locoregional anesthesia, using either peripheral nerve stimulator or ultrasounds for brachial plexus block.
Study design: A prospective randomized clinical study was performed at the County Emergency Clinical Hospital of Tîrgu Mureș, between January and May 2013 on patients undergoing elective or emergency surgical interventions on upper limbs with locoregional anesthesia. Brachial plexus block with axillary approach was performed in 65 patients using randomly the nerve stimulator or the ultrasound guided technique. The parameters recorded were the duration of the anesthetic technique, the installation time and the length of anesthesia. All anesthetic incidents during and after anesthesia were observed as well. The recorded data were analyzed and statistically processed.
Results: We enrolled 40 (61.5%) patients for the nerve stimulation technique and 25 (38.5%) patients for ultrasound guidance. The quality of the block was acceptable, an inadequate anesthesia was reported in 9 patients (13.8%). The mean time of installation of anesthesia was 34.36 (± 11.56) minutes, time recorded from the initiation of the anesthetic technique until complete motor block. The mean duration of the motor block was 481.3 (± 128.6) minutes which represents over 8 hours. None of the patients required conversion of the anesthesia due to the extended period of the surgical intervention. One patient presented a mild allergic reaction to the anesthetic drugs.
Conclusion: Combination of the ropivacaine and lidocaine can be safely used for locoregional anesthesia, especially in those cases where long surgical intervention time is anticipated or in order to achieve a better postoperative analgesia.


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