Anatomical variations of nutrient foramina on the long bones of the upper extremities – Importance and application in everyday clinical practice

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0011

Objectiv: Anatomic characterization of the nutrient artery of upper extremity long bones differs among the several textbooks on human anatomy. To elucidate the anatomical features of the nutrient foramen (NF) through which the nutrient arteries pass, we examined the morphology and topography of the NF on the diaphysis of the long bones of the upper extremities.
Methods: A total of 150 (50 humeri, 50 radii, 50 ulnae) macerated and degreased adults, long bones of the upper extremities, unknown age, and gender were used as material in this study. The following parameters were determined for each bone: total number of NF, foramina index (FI), total bone length, position of the NF based on the FI value and the surface of the shaft/body of the bones, and obliquity of the nutritional canal (NC).
Results: The largest number of NF was found on the middle third of the anteromedial side of the humerus diaphysis, with NC directed distally, that is, towards the elbow. Radius and ulna had predominantly one NF, on middle third of anterior surface, with NC directed proximally.
Conclusion: This study provides additional and important information on the location and number of NF in the long bones of the upper and lower extremities in the Bosnian and Herzegovinian population.

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