Category Archives: AMM 2023, Volume 69, Number 1

Air guns: An underestimated danger – case presentation, literature review and legal interpretation

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0013

Introduction: The compressed air weapon is a type of arm to which the projectile is propelled due to the compression of air in a sealed chamber. These types of weapons belong to the category of non-lethal weapons and ammunition subject to authorization. However, accidental fatal cases, suicides or even deaths with intention attributed to these types of weapons are described in the literature.
Case presentation: We are discussing the case of a 5-year-old boy who, at a picnic with several families, is shot and killed with a compressed air rifle, left unattended. The medical crew arrived at the scene could not save the boy’s life. Necroptic examination revealed a gunshot wound through the heart, with the projectile stuck in the lateral-internal wall of the right ventricle. The projectile identified was a metal type projectile (lead), with a length of 8.5 mm and a diameter of 4.5 mm.
Conclusions: Compressed air weapons, although considered non-lethal, have proven over time their extremely dangerous potential through the fatal injuries produced. Raising public awareness, limiting use and enforcing strict legislation could prevent tragic events.

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Clinical characteristics and endoscopic findings in autoimmune gastritis – a retrospective study

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0012

Objectives: Autoimmune gastritis (AG) is a rare condition that increases the risk of developing stomach adenocarcinomas or carcinoid tumours. The objectives of the present research were to summarise the clinical traits of AG patients, together with gastroscopic and histopathologic findings, demographic data, and hematologic characteristics.
Patients and methods: A medical centre assessed 58 AG patients from January 2019 to December 2022.
Results: The majority of the patients were female (73.7%), and the mean age of the participants at the time of the diagnosis was 57.7 ± 12.1 years. We identified pernicious anaemia (54.4%), iron deficiency anaemia (21.1%), as well as autoimmune disorders (96.5%). Though 78.9% of patients reported having gastrointestinal symptoms, 69% presented exclusively upper gastrointestinal symptoms, 17% only had lower, and 14% had concurrent upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms.  All 58 AG patients were examined for associated gastric lesions, although abnormal injuries were detected in only 22 of them. One patient (1.8%) had adenocarcinoma, while five patients (8.8%) had type 1 neuroendocrine tumours (NET). In addition, hyperplastic polyps were found in 16 (28.1%) individuals.
Conclusions: Other autoimmune diseases were present with AG, which showed a female predominance. Clinicians should give AG more significant thought by allowing access to interdisciplinary teams.

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Intermittent fasting for the management of NAFLD: Is there enough evidence?

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0001

The pathogenesis of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been described as multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors acting synergistically and causing excessive hepatic lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and downstream pathogenetic insults. High-calorie diets, particularly those rich in foods with high (saturated) fat and sugar content, and sugar-sweetened beverages, are among the behavioral risk factors with a crucial role in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, meal frequency and meal timing appear to be relevant factors associated with NAFLD. Current guidelines recommend a hypocaloric, preferably Mediterranean diet as the main dietary intervention approach, but various other dietary models have been evaluated in patients with NAFLD. Among these, several intermittent fasting regimens have shown promising results. Diets based on Time-Restricted Feeding and Intermittent Energy Restriction have demonstrated some improvements in body adiposity, liver enzymes, and hepatic steatosis, but most studies included a small number of subjects, were of relatively short-duration, and used surrogate markers of NAFLD. The best intermittent fasting regimen for NAFLD is not yet known, and further well-designed research that evaluates the feasibility (mainly on long-term), safety and efficacy outcomes of these dietary interventions is still needed. Our review has evaluated the up-to-date information regarding the intermittent fasting dietary intervention in NAFLD and generated some key-point messages that are relevant to physicians and dietitians involved in the care of patients with NAFLD.

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Anatomical variations of nutrient foramina on the long bones of the upper extremities – Importance and application in everyday clinical practice

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0011

Objectiv: Anatomic characterization of the nutrient artery of upper extremity long bones differs among the several textbooks on human anatomy. To elucidate the anatomical features of the nutrient foramen (NF) through which the nutrient arteries pass, we examined the morphology and topography of the NF on the diaphysis of the long bones of the upper extremities.
Methods: A total of 150 (50 humeri, 50 radii, 50 ulnae) macerated and degreased adults, long bones of the upper extremities, unknown age, and gender were used as material in this study. The following parameters were determined for each bone: total number of NF, foramina index (FI), total bone length, position of the NF based on the FI value and the surface of the shaft/body of the bones, and obliquity of the nutritional canal (NC).
Results: The largest number of NF was found on the middle third of the anteromedial side of the humerus diaphysis, with NC directed distally, that is, towards the elbow. Radius and ulna had predominantly one NF, on middle third of anterior surface, with NC directed proximally.
Conclusion: This study provides additional and important information on the location and number of NF in the long bones of the upper and lower extremities in the Bosnian and Herzegovinian population.

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Oral cancer chemoprevention: A review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0010

Oral cancer is increasing in prevalence and its treatment is associated with high degree of morbidity and mortality. Thus, prevention of oral cancer is of utmost importance. Chemoprevention is the use of natural, synthetic, or biologic compounds to halt, reverse, or prevent the initial phases of carcinogenesis or the progression of neoplastic cells to cancer. This modality has been extensively researched in the last two decades for the prevention of oral cancer with the emergence of new information. Retinoids were the first chemopreventive agents to be tested in clinical settings. Since then, a number of new agents such as COX2 inhibitors, EGFR inhibitors, p53 targeted agents, thiazolidinediones and several natural agents have shown promise in oral cancer prevention. Chemopreventive trials in oral cancer tend to be long term studies and are thus challenging. This review article looks into the clinical evidence for the application of chemopreventive agents in clinical settings and also highlights the recent trends in oral cancer chemopreventive trials.

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Blood biomarkers predicting adverse clinical
outcomes in congenital heart disease patients, with consideration for pulmonary valve replacement

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0009

Objective: This review aims to make a brief overview of blood biomarkers’ clinical decision limits, possibly aiding in outcome prediction in all-aged Tetralogy of Fallot patients. Potentially, these biomarkers could also assist in necessity and timing of pulmonary valve replacement. Methods: Studies with all-aged patients with Tetralogy or Pentalogy of Fallot and blood biomarkers, BNP, NT-proBNP and hs-cTn, usage in clinical outcome prediction were included. Additionally, pulmonary valve replacement indications were considered. Other congenital heart diseases, biomarkers irrelevant to clinical outcome and associated pathologies or physiological status were the exclusion criteria. Keywords, Tetralogy and Pentalogy of Fallot, pulmonary valve replacement, blood biomarkers, yielded 69 suitable studies from Google Scholar, PubMed and Web-of-Science. 30 studies were selected. Results: Blood biomarkers were increased in TOF patients in comparison to controls; the higher the values, the worse adverse outcomes. Blood biomarkers combined with other biomarkers, imagistic methods or parameters showed promising results in outcome prediction. Conclusions: Blood biomarkers are validated as follow-up predictors in congenital heart disease paediatric patients. Further research is required to establish age-appropriate clinical decision limits. Pulmonary valve replacement timing remains controversial.

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Testosterone deficiency is associated with clinically relevant depression symptoms

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0008

Objective: To investigate the association between testosterone deficiency and depressive and/or anxiety symptoms.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the urology outpatient clinic from Ludus County Hospital. A set of validated questionnaires ((International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS)) were self-administrated. Inclusion criteria: age > 40 years. Exclusion criteria: any relevant psychiatric, cardiovascular, or cancer comorbidity. Statistical analyzes were performed using the statistical software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 23, Chicago, IL, USA).
Results: From the total of 55 participants included in the study, 23 (41.8%) had testosterone deficiency. Most were from the 60-69 years decade, 23 participants (41.8%), and the mean age was 59.3 (SD 9.03) years. Eleven (20%) patients had depressive symptoms according to the depression subscale, of these, 7 had mild symptoms and 4 according to Zung SDS. Testosterone deficiency was associated with an increased DASS-21 global score, p=0.021, and depression score, p=0.047.
Conclusions: Patients with testosterone deficiency are presenting symptoms of depression. Therefore, these patients need a multi-disciplinary approach that should include a psychological evaluation before making a further management decision.

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Comparison of two different file systems on postoperative pain after root canal instrumentation: A randomized controlled trial

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0006

Introduction: In this study post instrumentation pain is evaluated between rotary hyflex CM files and conventional k-files at different time intervals.
Methodology: fifty patients were equally assigned into two groups and instrumented using hyflex cm or conventional files. VAS for pain was noted before the start of a root canal and after the procedure at 12, 24, and 48 hours.
Results: There was no significant difference at 12, 24, and 48 hours with P values being 0.127, 0.867, and 0.846 respectively.
Conclusion: There is no significant difference in causing post-instrumentation pain between hyflex CM and conventional files at different time intervals. However, when accessing preop pain of the conventional file group, it had more pain mean score compared to hyflex group. According to this study, Conventional files may be able to slightly decrease the chances of post-instrumentation pain more than hyflex CM instrumentation.

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Management of denture stomatitis: An overview

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0007

Denture stomatitis is a common inflammation of the palatal mucosa beneath removable dentures. The objective of this article was to examine the systematic reviews and clinical trials pertaining to the treatment of denture stomatitis. For this research, electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science) were searched from January 2000 to June 2021 using specified MESH keywords. Irrelevant articles were eliminated in three steps based on their titles, abstracts, and body texts. In the final analysis, 47 papers were selected, which included 12 systematic reviews and 35 clinical trials. Herbal compounds and denture disinfection were the interventions most commonly indicated. We concluded that, possibly due to the complex nature of this lesion’s etiology, there is no present definitive therapy guideline for this prevalent lesion.

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Evaluation of effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line of Cocos nucifera: In vitro study

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0004

Objective: Cancer is one of the most important diseases today. The use of chemical drugs, surgical operations, and transplants is very common in its treatment. In addition to these treatment methods, studies include the effects of natural and plant-derived substances. Various substances are used in these studies, which are called phytotherapy. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects of Cocos nucifera on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 and the mouse fibroblast L929 cell line were investigated in this study.
Methods: In this study, in vitro cytotoxic effects of C. nucifera at different concentrations (7.81-500 mg/ml) were investigated on the L929 Mouse Fibroblast cell line and HepG-2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma cell line. In addition to these studies, their antioxidant capacity was evaluated via spectrophotometric methods. In this work, different concentrations of C. nucifera were examined.
Results: According to the results, C. nucifera had a cytotoxic effect in HepG-2 and ensured the proliferative effect of cells in the L929 cell line. Among C. nucifera extracts according to total antioxidant capacity results, C. nucifera extract was found to be the richest in antioxidants with 2.79 mmol/L, while the material with the lowest antioxidant capacity was determined to be C. nucifera milk. DPPH free radical scavenging activity results show the opposite.
Conclusion: In line with the data we obtained, it is thought that C. nucifera can be used in liver cancer studies, and its antioxidant effect may play an important role in balancing against oxidative stress. Simultaneously, the data show that the exposure time and concentrations of the active substance are related to the cytotoxic effect. However, it may be considered that the use of C. nucifera water, extract, and milk in cancer patients may be supported by more comprehensive clinical studies.

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