University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mures, Romania
The Internet has become one of the main means of communication used by people who search for health-related information. The quality of online health-related information affects the users’ knowledge, their attitude, and their risk or health behaviour in complex ways and influences a substantial number of users in their decisions regarding diagnostic and treatment procedures.
The aim of this review is to explore the benefits and risks associated with using the Internet as a source of health-related information; the relationship between the quality of the health-related information available on the Internet and the potential risks; the multiple conceptual components of the quality of health-related information; the evaluation criteria for quality health-related information; and the main approaches and initiatives that have been implemented worldwide to help improve users’ access to high-quality health-related information.
Bara Tivadar Jr1, Bara Tivadar1*, Neagoe Radu1, Sala Daniela1, Gurzu Simona2, Jung Ioan2, Borz Cristian1
1 Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mures, Romania
2 Department of Pathology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mures, Romania
Lymphonodular metastases remain an important predictive and prognostic factor in gastric cancer development. The precise determination of the lymphonodular invasion stage can be made only by extended intraoperative lymphadenectomy and histopathological examination. But the main controversy is the usefulness of extended lymph dissection in early gastric cancer. This increases the duration of the surgery and the complications rate, and it is unnecessary without lymphonodular invasion . The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes has been successfully applied for some time in the precise detection of lymph nodes status in breast cancer, malignant melanoma and the use for gastric cancer patients has been a controversial issue. The good prognosis in early gastric cancer had been a surgery challenge, which led to the establishment of minimally invasive individualized treatment and acceptance of sentinel lymph node mapping. The dual-tracer method, submucosally administered endoscopically is also recommended in sentinel lymph node biopsy by laparoscopic approach. There are new sophisticated technologies for detecting sentinel lymph node such as: infrared ray endoscopy, florescence imaging and near-infrared technology, carbon nanoparticles, which will open new perspectives in sentinel lymph nodes mapping.
University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tirgu Mures, Romania
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) became a subject of considerable scientific interest. Due to the increasing use of the ABPM in everyday clinical practice it is important that all the users have a correct knowledge on the clinical indications, the methodology of using the device including some technical issues and the interpretation of results. In the last years several guidelines and position papers have been published with recommendations for the monitoring process, reference values, for clinical practice and research. This paper represents a summary of the most important aspects related to the use of ABPM in daily practice, being a synthesis of recommendations from the recent published guidelines and position papers. This reference article presents the practical and technical issues of ABPM, the use of this method in special situations, the clinical interpretation of measured values including the presentation of different ABPM patterns, derived parameters, the prognostic significance and the limitations of this method.
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tîrgu Mureş, Romania;
2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tîrgu Mureş, Romania
Prodrugs are chemically modified derivatives introduced in therapy due to their advantageous physico-chemical properties (greater stability, improved solubility, increased permeability), used in inactive form. Biological effect is exerted by the active derivatives formed in organism through chemical transformation (biotransformation). Currently, 10% of pharmaceutical products are used as prodrugs, nearly half of them being converted to active form by hydrolysis, mainly by ester hydrolysis. The use of prodrugs aims to improve the bioavailability of compounds in order to resolve some unfavorable characteristics and to reduce first-pass metabolism. Other objectives are to increase drug absorption, to extend duration of action or to achieve a better tissue/organ selective transport in case of non-oral drug delivery forms. Prodrugs can be characterized by chemical structure, activation mechanism or through the presence of certain functional groups suitable for their preparation. Currently we distinguish in therapy traditional prodrugs prepared by chemical derivatisation, bioprecursors and targeted delivery systems. The present article is a review regarding the introduction and applications of prodrug design in various areas of drug development.
Carmen Rădulescu1*, Adina Huţanu2, Rozalia Gabor3, Nina Şincu4
1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology II, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu.Mureş, Romania
2 Department of Central Laboratory, Emergency University Hospital, Tirgu Mureş, Romania
3 Department of Management and Economy, University Petru Maior of Tirgu Mureş, Romania
4 Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mureş, Romania
Introduction: Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by hypertension after 20 weeks of gestation and proteinuria. It is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia is not completely understood. In our study we investigated if there is a potential link between cytomegalovirus infection and pre-eclampsia and if cytomegalovirus infection is the triggering factor of pre-eclampsia.
Material and methods: This study was carried out in a secondary care hospital between January 2014 and July 2015. We included two groups of pregnant women: 66 with pre-eclampsia and 62 without pre-eclampsia. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was performed to detect cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G levels in maternal serum.
Results: The p-value between median values of positive cytomegalovirus IgG in pre-eclamptic women and in controls was not significant (p:0.867). Odds ratio for cytomegalovirus IgG in pre-eclamptic group (OR:0.967; 95%CI:0.535-1.748) do not differ greatly from the value recorded in the control group (OR:1.036; 95%CI:0.571-1.880). The risk for preterm birth in pre-eclamptic women with cytomegalovirus IgG positive values (OR:1.009; 95%CI:0.329-3.090) was greater than those which had term delivery (OR:0.994; 95%CI:0.472-2.095) but the two values are not very high. We found a positive correlation coefficient (0.217) at a “p” value of 0.08 between white blood cells, but a negative correlation coefficient between the percentage of neutrophils and cytomegalovirus infection.
Conclusion: Cytomegalovirus infection may be associated with pre-eclampsia but it is unlikely to be the triggering factor of pre-eclampsia.
National Institute of Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Balș”, Bucharest, Romania; “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
Objective: The aim of the study was to describe clinical and laboratory characteristics in HIV-infected patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
Methods: We retrospectively studied data on HIV-infected patients hospitalized in one tertiary care hospital in Bucharest, Romania, in whom Kaposi Sarcoma was diagnosed, between January 2008 and November 2013.
Results: We identified 27 HIV-infected patients diagnosed with KS within 6 years. They had a median age of 42 years old and a median CD4 cell count of 101 cells per mm3 at the time of KS diagnosis. All patients received antiretroviral therapy (ART), with 18 patients (66%) already on ART at the time of KS diagnosis. Most patients (59%) were classified as ACTG poor-risk and 56% as Mitsuyasu stage I. The overall prognosis was poor, with 41% mortality, in a median time span of 6 months, significantly correlated with gastrointestinal involvement (p=0.019), poor-risk KS in ACTG classification (p<0.001) and stage IV Mitsuyasu (p=0.006).
Conclusion: KS remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection, especially in late presenters.
Biris Carmen, Bud Eugen, Ormenian Alina, Lazar Ana Petra*, Pop Diana, Yero Eremie Lia Maria, Lazar Luminita
Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Tirgu Mures, Romania
Developmental disabilities exist in children and adolescents, enabling them to live an independent and self-governing life, requiring special health related services. We are intended to inform dental professionals in planning and implementing a dental treatment for people with developmental disabilities. Cerebral palsy is defined as being a group of motor abnormalities and functional impairments that affect muscle coordination, and characterized by uncontrolled body movements, intellectual disabilities, balance-related abnormalities or seizure disorders. These patients can be successfully treated in normal dental practices, but because they have problems with movements, care must be tailored accordingly. Down syndrome, a very common genetic disorder, is usually associated with different physical and medical problems, intellectual disabilities, and a developmental delay. These patients can be treated with success in dental offices, this way making a difference in the medical care for people with special needs. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior. Self-injurious behavior, obsessive routines and unpredictable body movements can influence dental care. Because of the coexisting conditions (epilepsy or intellectual disability), one can find this people among the most challenging to treat. There is a need of greater awareness, focus and education in the field of the unique and complex oral health care that people with disabilities need. Making a difference their oral health positively influences an already challenged existence. According to the ethical principles, patients with developmental disabilities should be treated equitably depending on their necessities.
1 University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tîrgu Mureș, Romania
Lyme neuroborreliosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensulato group. Neurological clinical manifestations usually present a steady evolution and are different in patients from Europe compared to those from America, possibly due to vector agents and different bacterial species. Various diagnostic markers were studied in consideration of a clear or possible diagnosis of the disease, because evolution and complications depend on early diagnosis and initiation of therapy. The isolation of the bacterium is difficult, microscopic examination and the bacterial dezoxiribonucleic acid amplification shows low sensitivity. However, the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis is mainly based on serological methods that have a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. A correct diagnosis can be performed by strictly respecting clinical guidelines and protocols and carefully interpreting the serological tests. The presence of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid with evidence of intrathecal antibody production is the gold standard diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early administration of antibiotic treatment (third generation cephalosporins, cyclins, aminopenicillins) can produce the remission of neurological symptoms, the eradication of spirochetes in acute phase of the disease, thus avoiding the development of the chronic disease.
1 Fundamental Pharmaceutical Science Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tîrgu Mureş, Romania
2 Mureş Water Administration, Tîrgu Mureş, Romania
3 Specialist Pharmaceutical Science Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tîrgu Mureș, Romania
As more data are generated from proteome and transcriptome analysis revealing that metalloproteinases represent most of the Viperid and Colubrid venom components authors decided to describe in a short review a classification and some of the multiple activities of snake venom metalloproteinases. SVMPs are classified in three major classes (P-I, P-II and P-III classes) based on the presence of various domain structures and according to their domain organization. Furthermore, P-II and P-III classes were separated in subclasses based on distinctive post-translational modifications. SVMPs are synthesized in a latent form, being activated through a Cys-switch mechanism similar to matrix metalloproteinases. Most of the metalloproteinases of the snake venom are responsible for the hemorrhagic events but also have fibrinogenolytic activity, poses apoptotic activity, activate blood coagulation factor II and X, inhibit platelet aggregation, demonstrating that SVMPs have multiple functions in addition to well-known hemorrhagic function.
Hancu Gabriel1, Tero-Vescan Amelia2*, Filip Cristina2, Rusu Aura1
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tîrgu Mures, Romania
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tîrgu Mures, Romania
The aim of this study to inventory the main electrophoretic methods for identification and quantitative determination of fatty acids from different biological matrices. Critical analysis of electrophoretic methods reported in the literature show that the determination of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be made by: capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography using different detection systems such as ultraviolet diode array detection, laser induced fluorescence or mass – spectrometry. Capillary electrophoresis is a fast, low-cost technique used for polyunsaturated fatty acids analysis although their determination is mostly based on gas chromatography.
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