Category Archives: AMM 2016, Volume 62, Number 1
Intracoronary Imaging for In-Stent Restenosis – Ready for Clinical Routine?
Since the first human coronary stent implantation in 1986, the number of coronary stenting procedures rapidly increased and many different types of coronary stents have been introduced in the market of cardiovascular products . Despite the introduction of new generation stents with superior quality (drug eluting or bioabsorbable stents) and despite the increasing experience in performing stenting procedures, the restenosis within the implanted stent, known as in-stent restenosis (ISR), continues to represent a major healthcare problem. ISR was noted in approximately 30% of cases following implantation of bare metal stents, however its incidence significantly decreased after introduction of new drug eluting stents (DES) in the recent years. [More]
Bulk Fill Resin Composite Materials Cured with Single-Peak versus Dual-Peak LED LCUs
Introduction: Manufactures claim that recently introduced bulk fill materials (BFM) can be cured adequately in 4 mm increments. This requires adequate light energy to be transmitted through the material to ensure adequate polymerization at the bottom of the increment.
Aim: To compare the total light energy transmission through three BFMs and bottom/top (B/T) surface Vickers hardness (VH) when cured with single-peak versus dual-peak LED LCUs.
Methods and Materials: Samples (n=5) of two viscous BFMs, Tetric EvoCeram® Bulk Fill X-tra fil® [XF] flowable SureFil, were prepared. A conventional RBC, Tetric EvoCeram® was used as a control. Using MARC® RC, the irradiance delivered to top surface of samples was adjusted to 1200 mW/cm2. Samples were cured with singlepeak EliparTM S10 or dual-peakBluephase® G2 for 10 seconds and irradiance transmitted to the bottom surface measured. Samples were stored for 24 hours, prior to VH measurements B/T VH ratios were calculated.
Statistically analysed used oneway ANOVA (α=0.05).
Results: There was no statistically significant difference for B/T total energy transmission between materials except XF with EliparTM S10 (P<0.001). Total energy transmission ranged from 0.7 J/cm2 to 1.5 J/cm2. There was no statistically significant difference for B/T VH ratios between materials (P>0.05) when materials were cured with single-peak versus dual-peak LCU’s, XF>SDR>TEC>TBF. TBF alone, did not reach the generally accepted B/T VH of 80%.
Conclusions: Both single-peak and dual-peak LCU’s were equally effective for curing the studied bulk fill materials. Manufacture’s recommended total energy delivered to the top surface may not always be sufficient for effective curing.
Endocrine dysfunction in neurofibromatosis type 1 – an update
Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with multiple neoplasms particularly those of ectodermal origin. Various endocrine pathologies are often present, among them, hyperparathyroidism and follicular thyroid lesion are very rare described and their coincidence in the same patient has not been described in the literature reviewed.
Subject: A 59-years-old woman with clinical manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 developed dysphagia, dysphonia, choking sensation. Physical and imagistic examination revealed a multinodular goiter with microfollicular lesion on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), elevated parathormone levels and severe osteoporosis. The surgically removed thyroid contained a nodule with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential; the parathyroid tissue appeared normal.
Discussion and conclusion: This case serves as a reminder to look for non-neurogenic tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis. Clinicians must be aware of the diverse clinical features of this genetic disorder.
Volemic resuscitation in a patient with multiple traumas and haemorrhagic shock. Anti-oxidative therapy management in critical patients. A Case Report
A patient with multiple traumas is usually found in severe haemorrhagic shock. In 40% of the cases, the patient with multiple traumas and haemorrhagic shock cannot recover due to secondary injuries and complications associated with the shock. In this paper we present the case of a male patient 30 years old, who suffered a car accident. The patient is admitted in our hospital with haemorrhagic shock due to femur fracture, acute cranial-cerebral trauma and severe thoracic trauma with bleeding scalp wound, associated with lethal triad of trauma. The clinical and biological parameters demand massive transfusion with packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitate (CRY) and colloidal solution (CO) sustained with vassopresor for the haemodynamic stabilisation. During his stay in the ICU, the patient benefits from anti-oxidative therapy with Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Vitamin B1. After 14 days the clinical state of the patient improves and he is transferred in Polytrauma Department.
Incidence of pathogens infections in a Romanian Intensive Care Unit and sensitivity to antibiotics. A prospective single center study
Introduction: Nosocomial infections represent one of the biggest challenges faced by clinicians in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Infections in ICU are most often very serious and represent often the cause of hospitalization in intensive care clinics.
Aim of the study: This paper presents the incidence of nosocomial infections, and the sensitivity to antibiotics encountered in our ICU.
Material and Methods: This prospective study was conducted for two years at the Clinic of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Emergency County Hospital “Pius Brinzeu” Timisoara, Romania. All patients admitted to the ICU were analyzed in terms of signs and symptoms of bacterial infections.
Results: A total of 1081 microbiological reports were recorded. Among these, 635 (58.70 %) represented infections in the respiratory tract, 201 (18.60 %) in the bloodstream, 100 (9.30 %) in genitourinary tract, and 10 (0.90 %) in the central nervous system. The top five most frequently identified pathogen in microbiological reports are Klebsiella sp (17.60 %), Acinetobacter sp (14.20 %), Proteus mirabilis (13.80 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.90 %), Staphylococcus aureus – MSSA (12.80%).
Conclusions: In order to choose empirical treatment, international guidelines should be consulted according to each pathology and adapted to the sensitivity encountered in the microbiology reports of the Critical Care Unit.
Inferior Vena Cava Hypoplasia Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis – Case Presentation
Introduction: We present the case of a patient suffering from inferior vena cava hypoplasia complicated with Phlegmasia cerulean dolens. Imaging techniques allow precise diagnosis of inferior vena cava hypoplasia, providing essential structural details on the degree of damage of the vena cava and for the other branches. Case presentation: A 58 years old, obese and diabetic male patient presented with intense pain in the lower limbs, with the onset 24h before presentation. The patient presented generalized edema, cyanosis and functional impotence. Angio CT examination revealed hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava, with extensive DVT (deep vein thrombosis). In emergency conditions, with the agreement of the patient, we initiated the thrombolytic therapy (streptokinase for 72h) associated with anticoagulants (heparin). The evolution was favorable: a significant reduction in leg circumference was recorded, together with pain relief and reduction of local inflammation in the lower limbs. Conclusion: Severe cases of inferior vena cava hypoplasia complicated with deep vein thrombosis can present a good prognosis if appropriate treatment with anticoagulants and thrombolytics is initiated in time.
Diagnosis and Treatment Algorythm in Lyme Neuroborreliosis
Lyme neuroborreliosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensulato group. Neurological clinical manifestations usually present a steady evolution and are different in patients from Europe compared to those from America, possibly due to vector agents and different bacterial species. Various diagnostic markers were studied in consideration of a clear or possible diagnosis of the disease, because evolution and complications depend on early diagnosis and initiation of therapy. The isolation of the bacterium is difficult, microscopic examination and the bacterial dezoxiribonucleic acid amplification shows low sensitivity. However, the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis is mainly based on serological methods that have a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. A correct diagnosis can be performed by strictly respecting clinical guidelines and protocols and carefully interpreting the serological tests. The presence of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid with evidence of intrathecal antibody production is the gold standard diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early administration of antibiotic treatment (third generation cephalosporins, cyclins, aminopenicillins) can produce the remission of neurological symptoms, the eradication of spirochetes in acute phase of the disease, thus avoiding the development of the chronic disease.
High-on-Aspirin Residual Platelet Reactivity Evaluated Using the Multiplate® Point-of-Care Device
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of aspirin non-responsiveness using whole blood multiple electrode aggregometry and to investigate the role of different clinical and laboratory variables associated with the lack of response.
Methods: The present study included 116 aspirin treated patients presented with acute coronary syndromes or stroke. Response to aspirin was assessed by impedance aggregometry using arachidonic acid as agonist, in a final concentration of 0.5 mM (ASPI test).
Results: In our data set 81% (n=94) were responders and 19% (n=22) non-responders showing high-on-aspirin platelet reactivity. Correlation analysis showed that the ward of admittance, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), concomitant antibiotic treatment, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, history of myocardial infarction as well as PCI performed on Cardiology patients have different degrees of association with aspirin response.
Conclusion: Concomitant treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor inhibitors, history of myocardial infarction and Cardiology ward admittance significantly increased the chance of responding to aspirin treatment whereas antibiotic therapy and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol seemed to increase the risk of high-on-aspirin residual platelet reactivity.
The Study of Factors Associated with Severity of In-Stent Restenosis in Patients Treated with PCI for Acute Coronary Syndromes
Introduction: The management of in stent restenosis represents a topic of great actuality and interest, especially since the interventional treatment with stent implantation became largely accepted as the metod of choice in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Identification of certain risk factors that could predict the development of an in stent restenosis and its severity could be extremely useful for the clinical management of these patients.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a total of 60 stent restenoses encountered in 57 patients admitted and treated in the Cardiology Clinic of Tirgu Mures. The interval of occurrence of restenosis ranged between 2 months and 37 months postintervention. We monitored the demographic characteristics (age, gender, colesterol, presence of renal insufficiency) and we realized a descriptive qualitative analysis of the angiographic procedural aspects. The in stent restenosis occurred most frequently on left anterior descending artery (63%), followed by the circumflex artery (22.15%) and right coronary artery (14.8%), regardless of the degree of stenosis prior to revascularization.
Results: Statistical analysis using Chi square test revealed no statistically significant differences in terms of the correlation between the incidence of restenosis and gender (p=0.14), treatment with ACE inhibitors (p=0.16), implanted stent diameter (p=0.22) or the type of procedure (ram crossing over a secondary branch being considered as a procedure involved in the genesis of severe restenosis) (p=0.02). We used the t-student test for comparative analysis of the correlation between the continuous variables related to initial native lesion diameter and the degree of restenosis, without finding any a statistically significant correlation between them (p=0.226). However, a statistically significant correlation was found between cholesterol levels and the degree of stenosis (p=0.039). Descriptive analysis of restenosis lesions did not find any statistically significant correlation with the type or degree of stenosis in the native vessel, but showed statistically significant differences when evaluating the geometric assumption of restenosis by intraluminal diameter or intraluminal area (p=0.0018), suggesting that assessment of the degree of restenosis should be performed only by planimetric area.
Conclusions: We can conclude that in stent restenosis represents a plurifactorial phenomenon, that is not conditioned by the severity of the native lesion or by the administration of ACE inhibitors or Spironolactone, however it depends directly on the control of cholesterol values afther the coronary revascularization.