Tag Archives: treatment

Current and novel pharmacological therapeutic approaches in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A brief review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0023

Objective: Although not highly prevalent among the general population, post-traumatic stress disorder is a serious psychiatric condition, associated with co-morbidities, mortality and high suicide rates. Currently, there are few approved pharmacological therapies, which count as second-line, augmented to psychotherapy. Studies from the literature emphasize the need for novel treatment options, due to high relapse rates and patients that do not achieve remission. This study provides an overview over the pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, from a neurobiological perspective.
Methods: A systematic research has been conducted through PubMed, PLOS one, Cochrane library and Google Scholar databases.
Results: The neurobiological mechanisms which underlies the symptomatology are not fully elucidated. In the present, some theories involved in the onset/ manifestation are formulated (serotonergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic, GABA-ergic, endocannabinoid) and the current therapy aims to modulate these neurotransmissions. In light of the studies along the years, a line should be drawn between the drugs acting on reducing the anxiety only and those that exhibit dual effect i.e. reducing the anxiety and affecting the memory reconsolidation processes. Although labelled as recreational drugs rather than compounds with intended therapeutic effects, cannabidiol and 3,4-methylenedioximethamphetamine appear to be the most promising from the perspective of efficacy and benefit-risk ratio.
Conclusion: Preclinical studies come with acceptable results, yet clinical trials are controversial and heterogeneous, given the small population size. Given the seriousness of post-traumatic stress disorder, the attempts to find effective and safe treatment in a context that lacks appropriate therapeutic approaches should be encouraged.

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New Insights in Treatment Options in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0002

Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents one of the most frequent infections with bacterial etiology during childhood. In infants and toddlers with fever without source UTI’ investigation should be carried out, since signs and symptoms are nonspecific. However, obtaining uncontaminated urine samples from these patients can be challenging and time consuming; all current collection methods (clean-catch, plastic collection bag, catheterization, etc) have disadvantages. Criteria for UTI definition are represented by the presence of significant number of a single uropathogen, this number being different depending on the collection method: at least 1000 colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) for catheter samples and at least 100.000 CFU/ml from midstream clean-catch samples or 50.000 CFU/ml and significant pyuria in a symptomatic or febrile child. Accurate diagnosis of UTI is essential to avoid any antibiotic overuse and expensive investigations. UTI caused by resistant bacterial strains has an increasing prevalence in children. In pediatric population, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent the etiology of around 15% of UTIs. Because of limited therapeutic options the reintroduction of some old antimicrobial agents is necessary, therefore Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin, can represent alternatives for oral treatment and prophylaxis of UTIs in children or in case of resistance suspicion to other drug classes. It is important to recognize patients at risk, such as children with recurrent UTIs, kidney abnormalities, like vesicoureteral reflux and previous antibiotherapy, in order to recommend adequate empiric treatment, especially against resistant bacteria.

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Diagnosis and Treatment Algorythm in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0125

Lyme neuroborreliosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensulato group. Neurological clinical manifestations usually present a steady evolution and are different in patients from Europe compared to those from America, possibly due to vector agents and different bacterial species. Various diagnostic markers were studied in consideration of a clear or possible diagnosis of the disease, because evolution and complications depend on early diagnosis and initiation of therapy. The isolation of the bacterium is difficult, microscopic examination and the bacterial dezoxiribonucleic acid amplification shows low sensitivity. However, the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis is mainly based on serological methods that have a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. A correct diagnosis can be performed by strictly respecting clinical guidelines and protocols and carefully interpreting the serological tests. The presence of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid with evidence of intrathecal antibody production is the gold standard diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early administration of antibiotic treatment (third generation cephalosporins, cyclins, aminopenicillins) can produce the remission of neurological symptoms, the eradication of spirochetes in acute phase of the disease, thus avoiding the development of the chronic disease.

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Ultrasound of the Upper Digestive Tube as an Objective Argument for Initiating the Treatment and Evaluation of Its Results for the Dyspeptic Patient

Objective: The study evaluates the effectiveness of dyspeptic patients’ treatment to whom we have combined abdominal ultrasound with clinical examination at the start and also at the end of the treatment. Indirectly, the value of the abdominal ultrasound use for management of dyspeptics patients was assessed.
Material and methods: Our study was a clinical prospective observational study run on 72 patients (sex ratio F / M = 41/31, mean age 48±16 years) with dyspeptic symptoms and ultrasonographic changes in the oeso-gastro-duodenal aspect. The use of NSAID was investigated. The detection of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies was recommended for the start of the aetiological treatment . Anti-secretive treatment was prescribed for a period of three weeks and, in some cases, prochinetic treatment or eradication treatment were associated. Patients were then submitted to a clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up, at the end of the treatment. Points were awarded for the most common five clinical simptoms and four echographic signs and a score was calculated. The change in this score was searched fo. Statistical analysis was performd with software Microsoft Excel 2007, using the T student test.
Results: We obtained a record percentage improvement in each symptom, a highly significant average improvement of all symptoms after treatment (p < 0.01), and a decrease in the number of symptomes on a patient after the treatment. We also obtained an obvious improvement of ultrasound objective signs at the end of the treatment (p < 0.01).
Conclusions: Abdominal ultrasound can be a tool in assessing diagnosis and the initiation of the treatment of dyspeptic patients, but also a method of following the evolution of objective events under treatment .

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Lyme Neuroborreliosis – A Retrospective Study

Background: Lyme Neuroborreliosis represents the acute or chronic infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheric nervous system (PNS), as a consequence of a systemic infection.
Objectives: to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical, serological and post-therapeutic implications of CNS and PNS damage during Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) infection.
Material and method: We performed a retrospective study on 23 patients admitted between January 1st, 2009 – December 31, 2010. The patient’s inclusion was made respecting the criteria of the European Center for Diseases Control (ECDC) and the European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis (EUCALB). The levels of antiBb antibodies (IgM, IgG) were measured in the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and in the serum using ELISA and Western blot methods. Imaging techniques were used in the case of patients with meningeal and cerebral lesions. The patients were treated with 3rd generation cephalosporins and cyclins. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi square and Student tests.
Results: Twenty patients (86.96%) were included in the acute phase and 3 patients (13.04%) in the chronic phase of the disease. Meningeal damage was observed in 16 patients (69.56%), cerebral damage in 4 patients (17.39%), cranial nerve lesions in 2 patients (8.69%), radiculoneuritis in 1 patient (4.34%). Serological investigations using the ELISA method revealed the presence of antiBb antibodies in 100% of cases, in the CSF antiBb IgM antibodies were found in 18 patients (78.26%), IgG in 3 patients (13.04%); using the Western-blot method IgM antibodies were found in 20 patients (86.96%) and IgG in 3 patients (13.04%).
Conclusions: Early diagnosis and therapy led to a favorable evolution compared with patients who were treated late, the latter presenting neurological sequelae and relapses.

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Efficacy of Electroresection with the Diathermy Loop for the Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Introduction: Recent improvements in the understanding of the natural progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in the knowledge of the treatments of pregnancy related morbidity, in addition to the progression of mean age of first pregnancy, brings out the need to rethink CIN management. There are currently two different modalities in the treatment of cervical dysplasia: local destruction and excision (loop diathermy, cold-knife conisation and laser conisation). The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is the most commonly used technique today for the practice of conisation, regardless of the lesion’s size or level of junction in the endocervix. The aim of our study was to analyse the efficiency of LEEP and the incidence of complications in the per- and post-operative period.
Material and method: We enrolled 49 hospitalized patients who underwent loop diathermy excision of the cervix, in a period spanning two years between January 2009 and December 2011 at the Hospital Saint Die in France.
Results: As far as grading is concerned, 2 patients were CIN 1 (4.54%), 18 were CIN 2 (40.9%) and 24 were CIN 3 (54.54%). In 41 cases (93.18%) the resection was done within safety margins – healthy tissue, in three cases (6.12%) the excision was incomplete. Five patients referred to hospital with postoperative bleeding.
Conclusions: In our experience LEEP could be considered the treatment of choice for cervical dysplasia when colposcopy is satisfactory, because it is effective, simple, fast, inexpensive, unaggressive, has a low morbidity and it permits adequate pathological examination.

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The Therapeutic Management of Retroperitoneal Injuries

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2013-0032

Background: In the retro peritoneum different organs of various origins (vascular, nervous, muscular, fascia, etc.) are located. These represent the source of different surgical conditions that cause, even today, serious problems of early diagnosis and treatment.
Material and method: We have conducted a retrospective study throughout a period of 8 years (2004–2011). We followed the incidence, the treatment and the evolution of several types of retroperitoneal lesions.
Results: In this period 79 cases of retroperitoneal conditions were encountered, representing 0.51% from the total of 15,284 patients admitted and treated within our clinic. The most common cases were those of tumour conditions and retroperitoneal primitive tumours (RPT). Many inflammatory conditions were also encountered. There were a few cases of retroperitoneal overflows or of parasitic diseases and we did not encounter cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis or malacoplaky.
Conclusions: In our study the majority of the retroperitoneal conditions were of tumour nature, especially malignant RPTs. Secondary retroperitoneal tumours (adenopathies, metastases, relapses) were less frequent. The excision of the retroperitoneal tumours is delicate, especially due to the vascular factor caused by anatomical conditions and their own vascularisation. On well-chosen cases we can use minimally invasive surgical techniques (laparoscope, punctures and eco-guided drainages), which enable a favorable post-operative evolution.

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Rare Cause of Cephalalgia in a Young Woman – a Case Report

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0045

Background: Young adults meeting hypertension diagnostic criteria have a lower prevalence of a hypertension diagnosis. Headache is a rather common symptom among young people. Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is an idiopathic, segmental, nonatherosclerotic and non-inflammatory disease of the muscular tunica of arterial walls, leading to stenosis of small and medium-sized arteries. Fibromuscular dysplasia is much more common than previously thought and is a treatable cause of secondary hypertension.
Case presentation: We present the case of an 18 y.o. young woman, with headache and high blood pressure. “White coat hypertension” was suspected. Clinical history with abrupt onset and increasingly difficult to treat hypertension especially in women, were suggestive for renal artery stenosis. Renal ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography confirmed the aspect of FMD. Sequential percutaneous renal artery angioplasty was later performed with improved evolution both from the clinical point of view and controlled blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg with minimal antihypertensive regimen. Angio CT exam of neck and brain arteries was performed, no other FMD typical lesions were identified.
Conclusions: Medical treatment is first indicated for the hypertensive patient. In this particular case percutaneous renal artery angioplasty showed significant improvement in reduction of antihypertensive treatment in a young patient with secondary hypertension. Further monitoring and management of this patient will include blood pressure measurements at 3-month intervals and renal function measurements annual, as well as non-invasive duplex ultrasonography at 12-month intervals, follow-up is indefinite. It remains challenging whether the patient can be medically managed on antihypertensive medication alone.

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