Correlation between diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy as a long term complications of diabetes mellitus

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0024

Background/aim: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by a lack of insulin, with a consequent disordered metabolism of glucose, fats, and proteins. A number of complications, such as diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy, may develop as a result of long-term diabetes. The aim of this study aimed to determine the correlation between diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy as long-term complications of diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods: Retrospective, descriptive, and analytical research was conducted at the department of Endocrinology, Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. The study included 158 patients hospitalized in time between 1st of January and 31st of December 2012.
Results: New-onset diabetes was found in 38%, and diabetes type 2 patients 132 (83.5%), female 105 (66.5%) while older than 60 years were 100 (63.3%). Upon discharge from hospital 83,7% of patients were discharged with glycemia <10 mmol / l. We found that 47,5% of patients had HbA1c> 10%. Reduced kidney function, different degrees of failure was at 66.5%. More than half (62.7%) patients had proteinuria as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic retinopathy was diagnosed with different types in 54.4%.
Conclusion: Diabetes leads to an increase in nitrogen compounds, and the development of diabetic nephropathy manifests as various degrees of renal insufficiency. The duration of diabetes and occurrence of diabetic retinopathy were significantly interrelated. The correlation between the degree of renal failure and changes in the ocular fundus has not been proven, but more severe renal insufficiency is associated with a higher incidence of diabetic retinopathy compared to patients with less impaired renal function.

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