Tag Archives: diabetes mellitus

Correlation between diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy as a long term complications of diabetes mellitus

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0024

Background/aim: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by a lack of insulin, with a consequent disordered metabolism of glucose, fats, and proteins. A number of complications, such as diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy, may develop as a result of long-term diabetes. The aim of this study aimed to determine the correlation between diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy as long-term complications of diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods: Retrospective, descriptive, and analytical research was conducted at the department of Endocrinology, Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. The study included 158 patients hospitalized in time between 1st of January and 31st of December 2012.
Results: New-onset diabetes was found in 38%, and diabetes type 2 patients 132 (83.5%), female 105 (66.5%) while older than 60 years were 100 (63.3%). Upon discharge from hospital 83,7% of patients were discharged with glycemia <10 mmol / l. We found that 47,5% of patients had HbA1c> 10%. Reduced kidney function, different degrees of failure was at 66.5%. More than half (62.7%) patients had proteinuria as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic retinopathy was diagnosed with different types in 54.4%.
Conclusion: Diabetes leads to an increase in nitrogen compounds, and the development of diabetic nephropathy manifests as various degrees of renal insufficiency. The duration of diabetes and occurrence of diabetic retinopathy were significantly interrelated. The correlation between the degree of renal failure and changes in the ocular fundus has not been proven, but more severe renal insufficiency is associated with a higher incidence of diabetic retinopathy compared to patients with less impaired renal function.

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Effects of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on diabetic polyneuropathy in patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0023

Introduction: Peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy is present in nearly half of the patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Over the past 10 years, animal and human studies have suggested that vitamin D3 treatment may have a role in preventing or reducing neuropathic complaints and symptoms.
Material and method: Our clinical, prospective, interventional, placebo-controlled study investigated the therapeutic effect of 2.000 IU oral cholecalciferol administered for three months on diabetic polyneuropathy. Patients treated with vitamin D and B, thioctic acid, and other analgesics were excluded. Using the single-blind technique, they were randomly assigned into vitamin D-treated and placebo-treated groups. In addition to recording anamnestic data, the study included – a Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring System and Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument based – questionnaire to assess subjective symptoms and a physical examination including sensory tests (fine touch-, temperature awareness, pain-, vibration perception). Vitamin D levels were measured. After three months of therapy, the examination was repeated.
Results: Most of the patients were found to have vitamin D deficiency (36% of the total population) or insufficiency (43%). In the cholecalciferol-treated group, but not in the control group, subjective symptoms decreased in intensity and/or frequency, and a significant improvement in the overall complaint scale was observed (p = 0.006), but no change regarding the sensory tests (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: Our results show that oral administration of cholecalciferol for three months significantly reduced subjective symptoms and neuropathic pain as assessed by our questionnaire, however, there was no significant change in the results of the sensory tests. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was common in diabetic patients (79% in our population), therefore screening is recommended.

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The influence of transport condition and processing time on plasma ammonia results

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0005

Objective: Ammonia is extremely unstable in blood specimens and has special requirements during transport, processing and storage. The aim of our study was to determine the stability of ammonia in EDTA K3 blood samples and to establish a protocol for sample handling.
Methods: In this study, 36 healthy subjects and 47 inpatients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Two peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers (Sample A1 and A2) and one peripheral blood sample was collected from the inpatients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Sample B). Sample A1 and B were transported in ice bath within 15 minutes of blood collection, centrifuged immediately and processed. The sample was re-centrifuged after 15 minutes and a second ammonia result was obtained. Sample A2 was transported at room temperature and stored between 2 and 4 hours, centrifuged and plasma ammonia measurement was performed. The sample was re-spun after 15 minutes and a fourth ammonia result was obtained.
Results: In our study, in healthy group the difference between sample A2 and set point value (on ice, 15 minutes) is 25.08 µg/dl, showing an increase of 55.29%. After another 15 minutes, an increase of 82.02% was observed compared with the standard value. In diabetes mellitus group, after 30 minutes of blood collection, an increase of 11% over the set point value was observed.
Conclusions: The blood specimen should be transported on ice to the laboratory and analyzed within 15 minutes of blood collection due to plasma ammonia spontaneously increase.

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Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus Patients – Are We Aware of the Consequences?

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0003

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is the most frequent clinical form of autonomous diabetic neuropathy and appears secondary to cardiac autonomous fibre involvement, actively involved in cardiac rhythm impairment. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can present cardiac autonomic neuropathy early in the disease. Autonomous nerve function in DM patients should be assessed as early as the diagnosis is set in order to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy. The most frequent cardio-vagal test used is heart rate variability. An abnormal heart rate variability in the presence of orthostatic arterial hypotension indicates a severe cardiac autonomic neuropathy diagnosis. The development of cardiac autonomic neuropathy is subjected to glycaemic control, duration of the disease and associated risk factors. The glycaemic control is extremely important, especially early in the disease. Therefore, a poor glycaemic control carries unfavourable long-term effects, despite an ulterior optimal control, a phenomenon named “hyperglycaemic memory”. In type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, the association of cardiac autonomic neuropathy with intensive glycaemic control increases the mortality rate, due to the fact, that, secondary to autonomous impairment, the patients do not present the typical symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia. Stratifying the cardiac autonomic neuropathy aids the clinician in assessing the morbidity and mortality risk of diabetes mellitus patients, because it is an independent risk factor for mortality, associated with silent myocardial infarctions and the risk of sudden death.

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Mediators of Inflammation as a Link Between Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontal Breakdown

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2018-0005

Our objective was to investigate immunological changes that occur in saliva of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without signs of periodontal disease and to establish if salivary inflammatory cytokines are a possible link between diabetes mellitus and periodontal breakdown. Material and methods. Twenty T2DM subjects with no periodontal disease and twenty healthy controls were registered for the present study. TNF-α and IL-6 level from saliva and serum were measured. Periodontal tissue samples were histologically examined.

Results: TNF-α and IL-6 levels were higher in T2DM subjects compared to controls, with an extremely significant difference in saliva (p<0.001). Significant inflammation, affecting both epithelial and connective tissues was present in periodontal biopsies. Conclusions: The subjects showed an increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels, both in serum and -mostly in -saliva of diabetics without signs of periodontal disease, confirming the hypothesis of immunological implication, as a correlation between periodontal disease incidence and diabetes mellitus. Histologic alterations, suggesting a local inflammatory state, were present in periodontal tissue of diabetics, confirming the above hypothesis. The study reveals that saliva analysis is a quite efficient method in testing the periodontal breakdown progression in the subjects with T2DM.

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Particularities of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Diabetic Patients

Introduction: In the last few years many studies were focused on the implications of Helicobacter pylori infection in the evolution of patients with diabetes mellitus. Most of the results are controversial. Our aim was to study the prevalence of the bacterial infection and some of its epidemiological features in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients and the particularities of the association of Helicobacter pylori with diabetes mellitus.
Material and method: We studied 70 consecutive patients with dyspeptic syndrome evaluated with The Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire, divided in 2 groups: 35 diabetic and 35 non-diabetic patients.
Results: The prevalence of the Helicobacter pylori infection was similar in our groups (p >0.05). Inside each group, the prevalence of bacterial infection did not differ related to the determination method – serology vs. invasive test (p >0.05). In the diabetic patients we found a positive correlation between the bacterial infection and parameters like family size (>5) (p <0.01). The metabolic control of the diabetics was not influenced by the infection. Regarding diabetes complications, there is significant association of neuropathy with Helicobacter pylori. The eradication rate of infection was similar in diabetic and non-diabetic groups.
Conclusions: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection did not differ in diabetics versus non-diabetics. Both determination me-thods proved similar efficacy for bacterial diagnosis, but is recommended an association of an indirect and a direct method. The bacteria did not influence the glycemic status. Neuropathy is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

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Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy and Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Background: The neuropathic complications related to diabetes may affect the somatic, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, causing diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and to determine the relationships between diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), autonomic symptoms and diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DPN).
Methods: The prevalence of CAN among 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was assessed by the five autonomic function tests by Ewing’s methodology. DPN was diagnosed on the basis of both clinical criteria and electrodiagnostic studies in upper and lower limbs.
Results: Patients with CAN had a longer duration of diabetes (p<0.0001), a poorer glycemic control (p=0.02), and a higher prevalence of DPN (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in sex distribution, body mass index, lipid profile and blood pressure between patients with and without CAN.
Conclusion: Our results confirmed the associations of CAN with duration of diabetes and poorer glycemic control. The natural progression of CAN is insidious and the symptoms are miscellaneous and manifesting at a relatively late stage. With the aim of preventing CAN, diabetic patients should receive a precocious diagnosis and be instructed for having a good metabolic control.

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