Bronchopulmonary cancer represents the neoplasms associated with the highest mortality rate, despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances in recent decades. Early diagnosis is often difficult due to the paucity of symptoms or superinfections. Screening subjects at risk of developing lung cancer include clinical, bacteriological, inflammatory status, and genetic profile assessment. The personal microbiome has an essential role in the physiology of the human body. The gut-lung axis plays an essential role in carcinogenesis, being involved in various pathways. The lung microbiome can contribute to the development of lung cancer either directly by acting on tumor cells or indirectly by modulating the tumor-associated immune response. The gut microbiome can directly affect the response to immunotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.