Introduction: Glioblastoma is one of the most common and aggressive brain tumours with a very high mortality rate. It often evolves from a late or misdiagnosed astrocytoma. Stroke is one of the most common pathologies of the brain, affecting approximately 1.1 million Europeans each year. This article presents the sequential development of a low-grade astrocytoma in an ischemic brain territory into a high-grade glioblastoma.
Case presentation: A 59-year-old patient presented to our hospital with severe headache and transient loss of balance and vision. Clinical findings and control imaging revealed the presence of an ischemic brain area in the left temporal lobe of the brain. Monthly brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up revealed the development of a low-grade astrocytoma in the ischemic territory, which later evolved into a glioblastoma.
Conclusions: Patients who suffer from a stroke should be closely monitored via MRI to prevent the rare development of tumour pathology in the affected territory.
Objective: Diaphragmatic dysfunctions are multiple and critical illnesses often lead to the muscular atrophy that affects respiratory and peripheral muscles. The primary objective was to investigate diaphragm thickness in hospitalized patients. Secondary objectives were to assess clinical evolution and outcome. Methods: In a mean time period of 7.9 days, two different chest computed tomographies were used in order to examine diaphragm alterations of right and left diaphragm in 20 critically ill patients tested Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction positive to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2. Patients were divided in two groups (one group <5% decrease in diaphragm thickness and another group ≥5% decrease in diaphragm thickness).
Results: Results showed that patients presented low 10 years predicted survival rate (Charlson Comorbidity Index > 7.7±3.08), marked inflammatory status (C-Reactive Protein = 98.22±73.35, Interleukine-6 = 168.31±255.28), high physiologic stress level (Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio = 31.27±30.45), respectively altered acid-base equilibrium. Half of the investigated patients had decrease in diaphragm thickness by at least 5% (right diaphragm = -7.83%±11.11%, left diaphragm = -5.57%±10.63%). There were no statistically significant differences between those with decrease of diaphragm thickness and those without diaphragm thickness, regarding length of stay in Intensive Care Unit and in hospital, inflammatory markers, and acid-base disorders.
Conclusions: Patients were admitted in Intensive Care Unit for acute respiratory failure and half of the investigated patients displayed diaphragm alterations at CT scan.