Tag Archives: blood pressure

Effect of Isoflurane Anesthesia on the Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Autonomic Nervous System Stimulation and Inhibition in Rats

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2020-0016

Objective: Many experimental studies aim to assess the autonomic nervous system (ANS), but this is often hampered by interactions with anesthetic drugs. We aimed to evaluate whether isoflurane anesthesia is suitable for ANS evaluation in rats.
Methods: Six Wistar rats were anesthetized with isoflurane (4 L/min, 2.5%). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline and 20 min after sympathetic inhibition (propranolol, 5 mg/kg) and stimulation (isoproterenol, 2.5 mg/kg), and parasympathetic inhibition (atropine nitrate, 2 mg/kg) and stimulation (carbamylcholine, 0.4 mg/kg; acetylcholine, 0.1 mg/kg). Six additional rats were used to assess the effects of isoproterenol, carbamylcholine, and atropine nitrate in the absence of anesthesia.
Results: Propranolol significantly decreased the HR and the SBP, whereas isoproterenol significantly increased the HR (all p≤0.01) in the isoflurane-anesthetized rats. However, the HR response to sympathetic stimulation was significantly reduced in the anesthetized compared to the non-anesthetized rats (p=0.03). Carbamylcholine and acetylcholine significantly decreased both the HR and SBP (all p<0.05) in the anesthetized rats, but the response to carbamylcholine administration was significantly more pronounced in the non-anesthetized rats (p=0.03). Atropine nitrate significantly increased the HR (p<0.001) in the non-anesthetized rats, but it had no effect on either the HR or the SBP in the presence of isoflurane anesthesia (both p>0.05).
Conclusions: Isoflurane anesthesia appears to interfere with both components of the ANS and is therefore not an optimal approach for experimental ANS evaluation. Our data indicate autonomic receptors and/or post-receptor mechanisms as the most likely site for isoflurane-ANS interactions.

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The Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Between Meals in a Cross-Sectional Study of a Health Oriented Adult Population

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0095

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of snacking and to explore the relationship between snacking and several demographic, anthropometric, functional and biochemical factors. Methods: The study included 756 individuals over 18 years of age from Medias, Romania. Demographics and data about snacking were collected by trained volunteers. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure were measured with standard equipment according to accepted procedures. Blood glucose and cholesterol were measured by experienced nurses using portable devices. Associations between variables were checked with the Pearson Chi-square test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between binary variables. Results: About half of the subjects in the studied sample reported snacking less than 2 times / week, 34.5% between 3-4 times / week and 14.8% more than 4 times / week. Statistical analysis found that snacking was associated with gender (males being less likely to snack than females), ethnicity (non-Romanians being less likely to snack than Romanian ethnics), marital status of the subjects (not married people being less likely to snack than married people ), systolic blood pressure (people consuming more often snacks being less likely to have high systolic blood pressure values), and blood sugar level (people eating more frequently between meals being more likely to have higher blood glucose levels). Conclusions: Snacking was a widespread eating habit among the study participants and was significantly associated with gender, ethnicity, marital status, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

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The Influence of Acute Phase Blood Pressure on Stroke Outcome: To Treat Or Not To Treat?

Romania ranks third in stroke mortality among countries reporting vascular statistics. Acute phase blood pressure has a major influence on stroke outcome. This review aims to give an overview of available data regarding the prevalence of extreme (both low and high) values of blood pressure in acute phase of stroke, impact of blood pressure on stroke prognosis, recommendations on the management of blood pressure, available national data, large ongoing internationl trials with possible impact on stroke guidelines.
The consensus of the EUSI panel is that “emergency administration of antihypertensive agents should be withheld unless the diastolic blood pressure is >120 mm Hg or unless the systolic blood pressure is >220 mm Hg. The panel remains concerned by the evidence that aggressive lowering of blood pressure among patients may cause neurological worsening, and the goal is to avoid overtreating patients with stroke until definitive data are available”.

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