Complicated idiopathic portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis: A case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0020

Introduction: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a life-threatening condition that can lead to intestinal ischemia, bowel obstruction and peritonitis. It is predominantly caused by arterial occlusion (acute arterial thromboembolism or thrombosis); however, it can rarely be secondary to mesenteric or portal vein thrombosis.
Case presentation: We present the case of a 61-year-old man admitted to the emergency service for intense abdominal pain and lack of bowel movement. A computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed, revealing portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis. Anticoagulant treatment was established. To appraise the extension of the necrotic tissue, the surgical team performed exploratory laparotomy, followed by segmental enterectomy. The following day, the patient complained of acute pain in the left lower limb and a CTA was performed indicating acute ischemic phenomenon. The surgical team performed thrombectomy using a Fogarty catheter. The ischemic enteral region extended, and the patient developed an enterocutaneous fistula that required surgical reintervention (enterectomy and right hemicolectomy).
Conclusion: Conservative treatment with anticoagulants is the first line treatment, followed by surgical treatment only in case of complications. Even though venous thrombosis is an exceptional cause of intestinal infarction, it can be the cause of life-threatening complications such as necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock.

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