Category Archives: AMM 2023, Volume 69, Number 2

Complicated idiopathic portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis: A case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0020

Introduction: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a life-threatening condition that can lead to intestinal ischemia, bowel obstruction and peritonitis. It is predominantly caused by arterial occlusion (acute arterial thromboembolism or thrombosis); however, it can rarely be secondary to mesenteric or portal vein thrombosis.
Case presentation: We present the case of a 61-year-old man admitted to the emergency service for intense abdominal pain and lack of bowel movement. A computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed, revealing portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis. Anticoagulant treatment was established. To appraise the extension of the necrotic tissue, the surgical team performed exploratory laparotomy, followed by segmental enterectomy. The following day, the patient complained of acute pain in the left lower limb and a CTA was performed indicating acute ischemic phenomenon. The surgical team performed thrombectomy using a Fogarty catheter. The ischemic enteral region extended, and the patient developed an enterocutaneous fistula that required surgical reintervention (enterectomy and right hemicolectomy).
Conclusion: Conservative treatment with anticoagulants is the first line treatment, followed by surgical treatment only in case of complications. Even though venous thrombosis is an exceptional cause of intestinal infarction, it can be the cause of life-threatening complications such as necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock.

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Hyperkalemia, self-medication, and over-the-counter drug usage in patients with cardiovascular disease in the perspective of polypragmasy

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0003

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. 40 percent of the adult Romanian population is hypertensive, and only three out of seven patients are getting the appropriate treatment. Hyperkalemia is in a close relationship with certain cardiovascular diseases, although the influence of a certain medical treatment on hyperkalemia is not yet established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapy of a group of patients with cardiovascular disease, representative for the adult population of our are and to analyze the administered drug therapy regarding polypragmasy (the concomitant usage of more than five different classes of substances), over-the-counter drugs and usage of drugs used without medical – physician prescribed – indication, and to evaluate serum potassium levels. The cross-sectional, observational, prospective, pharmaco-epidemiological study targets the observation, recording and analysis of 301 adult patients’ pharmacotherapy and laboratory findings. Based on the demographic data we found that the study group is representative for the adult population of our region. Hypertension was observed in 173 cases, and more than 60 percent of the patients were older than 65 years of age. Other comorbidities, such as ischemic cardiac disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, other cardiovascular diseases as well as chronic kidney failure and diabetes mellitus were positively associated with hypertension. In 50.8 percent of the cases usage of drugs without prescription was present. Likewise, multiple drug combinations were frequent with high rates of polypragmasy. Multiple drug combinations were observed, and self-medication rates were very high, which should be reduced substantially to obtain a more successful pharmacotherapy and a reduced drug interaction-induced side effect.

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Recent progress in apoptosis triggering facilitated by HeLa Studies

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0022

Objective: Cancer is a leading cause of death globally, prompting numerous efforts to find effective treatments. HeLa cells, derived from Henrietta Lacks’ cancerous squamous cells, have played a crucial role in cancer research due to their origin, resistance, and rapid growth. They are particularly useful for studying ways of cellular death triggering, or apoptosis, without an immune response. Thus, the objective of this paper was to review the latest publications on the subject of HeLa apoptosis so that a brief view to be available on the otherwise so extended subject.
Methodology: To provide a concise review of the extensive research on this topic, a search was conducted using the phrase “HeLa cells apoptosis triggering” on PubMed. The articles that were published in English, in the last 6 years, presenting results sustained by valid morphological and chemical apoptotic changes present in cells, were selected and reviewed. A comprehensive table presenting the apoptotic mechanism exerted by each substance was made to assure a concise presentation of the results.
Results: The reviewed studies have shown that many natural substances exhibit pro-apoptotic activity on malignant cells and can be used as chemotherapeutic agents. Some synthetic molecules were showed to have good results too. Important facts about these substances, their intervention site and metabolic modifications are presented in a concise form. The use of nano-carriers for targeted delivery was shown to increase their specificity towards cancerous cells.
Conclusions: HeLa cells were a groundbreaking discovery that revolutionized scientific research. Although there is ongoing research towards cancer cures using HeLa cells, there are still many trials and considerations that need to be addressed. With the countless existing HeLa cell lines, the scientific possibilities for research are endless.

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Detection of serum telomerase and fibronectin as precursor markers of cervix cancer in patients with a positive Pap test

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0021

Introduction: Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that appears in cervical cells, in the lower part of the uterus, being characterized by the proliferation of atypical cancerous cells, which can spread rapidly, representing a serious disease, with significant medical and social impact among affected individuals, and a severe evolution particularly when detected in advanced stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations found in cervical cells, caused by persistent HPV infection, using inflammatory protein biomarkers such as fibronectin and telomerase.
Material and method: This study included a total of 169 women, both asymptomatic and symptomatic, aged between 30 and 64 years. Those women underwent routine gynecological consultations or were referred to a gynecologist because of their symptoms. After selecting the patients, a Pap test and blood samples (5 ml) were taken. Using a questionnaire, information regarding sexual characteristics and behaviors, as well as personal medical history, were collected.
Results: The median value for telomerase was 0.1 ng/ml, with a minimum of 0.01 ng/ml and a maximum of 30.09 ng/ml. Based on the telomerase results, 66 (39.1%) patients had positive results (more than 0.215 units) and 103 (60.9%) had negative results. The median value for fibronectin was 3.72 ng/ml with a minimum of 0.55 ng/ml and a maximum of 89.9 ng/ml. Of all women included in the study, 36 (21.3%) had positive results (more than 10 ng/ml), and 133 (78.7%) had negative results. Also, 15.2% of patients with positive telomerase and 16.7% with positive fibronectin presented Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance. Mature squamous metaplasia and inflammatory cells have been identified among positive and negative results of fibronectin and telomerase.
Conclusions: Positive and negative results for fibronectin and telomerase were similar in correlation with cytological results and information about HPV infection or sexual practices/characteristics were similar.

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Oral manifestations of amyloidosis in a multiple
myeloma patient: A case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0019

The term amyloidosis refers to a wide range of diseases in which amorphous, extracellular, eosinophilic proteinaceous deposits form at various locations. In this article, we describe a case of amyloidosis with multiple myeloma in which the oral symptoms of the disease served as the main diagnostic clues. A male patient in his early 60s who had multiple tongue swellings presented to our department. Following an incisional biopsy, histological analysis revealed the presence of eosinophilic, amorphous hyaline-like material that was positive for Congo red staining and was indicative of amyloidosis. The presence of abnormal plasma cells in the patient’s bone marrow aspiration after the biopsy was done was suggestive of multiple myeloma. The patient is currently undergoing the CyBorD (Cyclophosphamide, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone) treatment for multiple myeloma that has just been diagnosed. We offer this instance to demonstrate that, although uncommon, amyloidosis can initially only manifest as numerous swellings on the tongue.

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Vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy induced oral chronic hyperplastic candidiasis and xerostomia in a young patient with Ewing’s sarcoma: A case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0018

A common primary bone malignancy in childhood and adolescence is Ewing’s sarcoma. Here we report multidisciplinary approach in the management of chronic hyperplastic candidiasis and xerostomia secondary to chemotherapy with vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (VDC) in a pediatric male patient with Ewing’s sarcoma of Ethmoid sinus. The initial diagnosed oral lesion was treated with topical clotrimazole 1%w/v for two weeks and Sucralfate 1g/10mL oral rinse for one month. Upon subsequent VDC chemotherapy cycle, the patient developed grade IV oral mucositis, severe neutropenia and associated oesophageal candidiasis. Treatment included combination of topical clotrimazole 1%w/v and Fluconazole 300mg/day (IV for 5 days and Tablet for 14 days). To prevent caries risk, pit and fissure sealants were applied and topical fluoride therapy was given; patient was encouraged to have frequent sips of water and prescribed kids xylitol gum for 15 days to minimize xerostomia. At 5-week follow up, reduction in burning sensation and resolution of white lesion was noted.

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The importance of early diagnosis and surveillance in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome: A case report

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0017

Introduction: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by hamartomatous intestinal polyps and mucocutaneous pigmentation. Most cases appear to be linked to the mutation of the STK11 gene. Patients are at a lifetime risk of gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal cancers.
Case Presentation: The present study offers the case of this rare disorder in a young woman revealed by jejunal obstruction caused by intussusception. A 32-year-old woman was referred to the surgical department with symptoms suggestive of an obstructive syndrome. On examination, there were multiple perioral pigmented lesions. An urgent exploratory laparotomy revealed bowel obstruction caused by an intussusception with a large polyp. The patient suffered another similar episode 4 years before leading to the diagnosis of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, however she was under no surveillance. Patients with pigmented lesions and a family member suffering from the mentioned syndrome should perform endoscopy and genetic tests to diagnose early and avoid complications.
Conclusion: Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome is difficult to treat due to its nonspecific symptomatology and late diagnosis. Life-threatening complications such as intussusception and various types of cancer are unanticipated. It is vital to diagnose and perform routine screening, which will make it possible to prolong the survival of many patients.

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Comparative clinical evaluation of xenograft (Cerabone) versus allograft combined with platelet-rich fibrin for treatment of grade II mandibular furcation defects

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0016

Aim: The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of naturally-derived bovine hydroxyapatite (Cerabone) versus demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft both combined with platelet-rich fibrin for treatment of grade II mandibular furcation defects.
Method: This clinical study included 20 systemically healthy patients, with grade II mandibular furcation defects, performed over 6 months. Control group comprised of open flap debridement + demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft + platelet-rich fibrin and test group comprised of open flap debridement + Cerabone + platelet-rich fibrin. Clinical parameters included: Plaque index, Modified Sulcular bleeding index, Vertical probing pocket depth, Horizontal probing depth, Probing clinical attachment level, Radiographic furcation depth, and radiographic bone fill percentage.
Results: Both groups showed satisfactory bone regeneration and improvement in clinical parameters. The test group exhibited greater reduction in vertical probing pocket depth, horizontal probing depth, and higher radiographic bone fill percentage when compared to control group, although these findings were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Both bone grafts were equally effective in treatment of grade II furcation defects. Further long-term studies are required to explore their maximum regenerative potential.

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