Tag Archives: COVID-19

Computed tomography evaluation of diaphragm alterations in 20 critically ill COVID-19 positive patients

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2022-0014

Objective: Diaphragmatic dysfunctions are multiple and critical illnesses often lead to the muscular atrophy that affects respiratory and peripheral muscles. The primary objective was to investigate diaphragm thickness in hospitalized patients. Secondary objectives were to assess clinical evolution and outcome. Methods: In a mean time period of 7.9 days, two different chest computed tomographies were used in order to examine diaphragm alterations of right and left diaphragm in 20 critically ill patients tested Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction positive to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2. Patients were divided in two groups (one group <5% decrease in diaphragm thickness and another group ≥5% decrease in diaphragm thickness).
Results: Results showed that patients presented low 10 years predicted survival rate (Charlson Comorbidity Index > 7.7±3.08), marked inflammatory status (C-Reactive Protein = 98.22±73.35, Interleukine-6 = 168.31±255.28), high physiologic stress level (Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio = 31.27±30.45), respectively altered acid-base equilibrium. Half of the investigated patients had decrease in diaphragm thickness by at least 5% (right diaphragm = -7.83%±11.11%, left diaphragm = -5.57%±10.63%). There were no statistically significant differences between those with decrease of diaphragm thickness and those without diaphragm thickness, regarding length of stay in Intensive Care Unit and in hospital, inflammatory markers, and acid-base disorders.
Conclusions: Patients were admitted in Intensive Care Unit for acute respiratory failure and half of the investigated patients displayed diaphragm alterations at CT scan.

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Vascular injury in macroscopically normal skin of patients with severe COVID-19 infection: clinical-pathologic correlations

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0027

Objectives: Taking into account that the documentation of the histopathological features in severe disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been scarce due to the avoidance of performing autopsies, the aim of the study was to detect the microscopic changes associated with severe COVID-19 infection in normal-appearing skin, without prominent dermatologic signs of a generalized microvascular thrombotic disorder, in accordance with the clinical evolution of disease.
Methods: In this morphological and immunohistochemical study we included cutaneous biopsy samples from 12 symptomatic patients with severe and critical type SARS-CoV-2 infection (with the admission date between February and June 2020), treated in the Intensive Therapy Unit Care of Emergency County Hospital Targu-Mures, Romania.
Results: The average age of our patients was 65.18 ± 14.21 years (range 41 to 83), and 66.67% of the patients were male. The histological and immunohistochemical assessment of cutaneous biopsies: in 4 cases the histological examination revealed small fibrin thrombi in deep-seated venules and small veins of subcuticular adipose tissue, and also 4 cutaneous biopsies showed occlusive vascular thrombosis in association with massive perivascular inflammatory infiltrate destroying and compromising the integrity of the vessel wall. The immunohistochemical examination of the composition of perivascular inflammatory infiltrate showed a predominance of CD3 positive lymphocytes, admixed with CD68 positive Mo/MF, some of them activated with FXIII expression. In the perivascular infiltrate, the presence of granulocytes and B lymphocytes was not characteristic.
Conclusion: According to our observations, in severe COVID-19, the cutaneous tissue is involved even in the absence of clinically obvious changes. Due to the relatively easy accessibility of skin samples, these could be applied to determine the severity of the patient’s clinical status, and to predict the necessity for anti-complement or anticoagulant treatments in the early stages of a severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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Advantages of lung ultrasound in triage, diagnosis and monitoring COVID-19 patients: review

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2021-0019

Over the last decades, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic period, lung ultrasound (LUS) gained interest due to multiple advantages: radiation-free, repeatable, cost-effective, portable devices with a bedside approach. These advantages can help clinicians in triage, in positive diagnostic, stratification of disease forms according to severity and prognosis, evaluation of mechanically ventilated patients from Intensive Care Units, as well as monitoring the progress of COVID-19 lesions, thus reducing the health care contamination. LUS should be performed by standard protocol examination. The characteristic lesions from COVID-19 pneumonia are the abolished lung sliding, presence of multiple and coalescent B-lines, disruption and thickening of pleural line with subpleural consolidations. LUS is a useful method for post-COVID-19 lesions evaluation, highlight the remaining fibrotic lesions in some patients with moderate or severe forms of pneumonia.

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