Human Papillomavirus (HPV) associated with oropharyngeal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC and OSCC) is escalating over the years. Hence, the present review aims to determine the prevalence of HPV-OSCC and HPV-OPSCC in Asian countries over the last decades. An electronic search was conducted using nine online databases to identify English-language articles on the prevalence of HPV-OPSCC and HPV-OSCC in Asian countries from January 2011 to June 2022. The risk of bias was assessed using the JBI critical appraisal checklist and the level of evidence was determined based on the OCEBM guideline. Single-arm meta-analysis was used to estimate the weighted mean prevalence of HPV-OPSCC and HPV-OSCC among patients in Asia. Subgroup analysis meta-regression and Egger’s tests were also conducted. 59 eligible studies were included with a higher prevalence of HPV-OPSCC (32.6%-37.4%) as compared to HPV-OSCC (10.9%-23.5%). Subgroup analysis revealed that the weighted mean prevalence of HPV-OPSCC was significantly higher (P<0.001) among East Asians, while the weighted mean prevalence of HPV-OSCC was significantly higher (P<0.001) among South Asians. All studies showed a low to moderate risk of bias with the level of evidence ranked between 2 and 3. The diagnostic tools utilised and geographical locations significantly affect the findings.
Over the past years, prevention and control of risk factors has begun to play an important role in the management of patients prone to develop atrial fibrillation (AF). A considerable number of risk factors that contribute to the creation of a predisposing substrate for AF has been identified over the years. Although certain AF risk factors such as age, gender, genetic predisposition, or race are unmodifiable, controlling modifiable risk factors may represent an invaluable tool in the management of AF patients. In the recent decades, numerous studies have evaluated the mechanisms linking different risk factors to AF, but the exact degree of atrial remodeling induced by each factor remains unknown. Elucidating these mechanisms is essential for initiating personalized therapies in patients prone to develop AF. The present review aims to provide an overview of the most relevant modifiable risk factors involved in AF occurrence, with a focus on the mechanisms by which these factors lead to AF initiation and perpetuation.
Background and Aims. Gastric cancer, because of its aggressive evolution and the high mortality associated with it, remains one of the most debated subjects in medical literature with Helicobacter pylori (HP) as a major risk factor. Chronic inflammation caused by HP infection represents the initial site of the predisposing and afterwards premalignant lesions for gastric carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HP infection, of predisposing and premalignant lesions on gastric biopsies, as well as to identify the correlations between them.
Material and method. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on gastric biopsies collected endoscopically from a single region, antrum or corpus, and from different regions, between January 2012 and July 2014. Incidence of HP infection, of predisposing and premalignant gastric lesions, the correlation of HP infection and these lesions, were evaluated.
Results. HP infection was diagnosed in 32.81%. Predisposing and premalignant lesions were present in 53.64% of biopsies with most of them in the antrum. HP infection stands out for the under 50 yo group (p=0.001). No correlation between frequency of HP infection and predisposing and premalignant lesions was observed.
Conclusions. Prevalence of HP infection in our study suggests that besides HP infection, other factors are also involved in gastric cancer development. Biopsies from different regions of the gastric mucosa do not offer extra information regarding HP infection prevalence but may be helpful in evaluating incidence and extension of predisposing and premalignant lesions.