Adrian Balasa1, Corina Ionela Hurghis2, Flaviu Tamas2, Rares Chinezu1,2
1. George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2. Neurosurgery Clinic, Emergency County Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania
Patient positioning is a crucial step in neurosurgical interventions This is the responsibility of both the neurosurgeon and the anesthesiologist.
Patient safety, surgeon’s comfort, choosing an optimal trajectory to the lesion, reducing brain tension by facilitating venous drainage, using gravitation to maintain the lesion exposed and dynamic retraction represent general rules for correct positioning. All bony prominences must be protected by silicone padding. The head can be positioned using a horseshoe headrest or three pin skull clamp, following the general principles: avoiding elevating the head above heart more than 30 degrees, avoiding turning the head to one side more than 30 degrees and maintaining 2 to 3 finger breaths between chin and sternum. Serious complications can occur if the patient is not properly positioned so this is why great care must be paid during this step of the surgical act.
Anca Motataianu1, Laura Iulia Barcutean2, Smaranda Maier1, Adrian Balasa3, Adina Stoian4
1. Department of Neurology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
2. Targu Mures County Clinical Emergency Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania
3 Department of Neurosurgery, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
4. Department of Pathophysiology, George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is the most frequent clinical form of autonomous diabetic neuropathy and appears secondary to cardiac autonomous fibre involvement, actively involved in cardiac rhythm impairment. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can present cardiac autonomic neuropathy early in the disease. Autonomous nerve function in DM patients should be assessed as early as the diagnosis is set in order to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy. The most frequent cardio-vagal test used is heart rate variability. An abnormal heart rate variability in the presence of orthostatic arterial hypotension indicates a severe cardiac autonomic neuropathy diagnosis. The development of cardiac autonomic neuropathy is subjected to glycaemic control, duration of the disease and associated risk factors. The glycaemic control is extremely important, especially early in the disease. Therefore, a poor glycaemic control carries unfavourable long-term effects, despite an ulterior optimal control, a phenomenon named “hyperglycaemic memory”. In type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, the association of cardiac autonomic neuropathy with intensive glycaemic control increases the mortality rate, due to the fact, that, secondary to autonomous impairment, the patients do not present the typical symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia. Stratifying the cardiac autonomic neuropathy aids the clinician in assessing the morbidity and mortality risk of diabetes mellitus patients, because it is an independent risk factor for mortality, associated with silent myocardial infarctions and the risk of sudden death.
George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
Spleen-derived immune cells are considered to play central role in the progression of ischemic brain damage contributing to both the local and systemic inflammatory response initiated by an ischemic insult in the brain tissue. Brain-spleen communication in acute ischemic brain injury has been studied especially in rodent models of stroke, which mimic the acute focal brain ischemia in humans. Rodent spleens decrease in size after experimentally induced stroke, due mainly by the release of spleen`s immune-cells into the circulation. Splenectomy prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion is protective to the ischemic brain resulting in decreased infarct volume and reduced neuroinflammation. Various therapeutic strategies in clinical use aiming to protect the neural tissue after stroke were found to involve the modulation of splenic activity, altogether indicating that the spleen might be a potential target for therapy in ischemic brain injury. Importantly, the most clinical studies demonstrated that the splenic response in stroke patients is similar to the changes seen in rodent models. Thus, despite the limitations to extrapolate the results of animal experiments to humans, rodent models of stroke represent an important tool for the study and understanding of brain-spleen communication in the pathogenesis of acute brain ischemia.
University of Medicine and Pharmacy Science and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania
Over the past years, prevention and control of risk factors has begun to play an important role in the management of patients prone to develop atrial fibrillation (AF). A considerable number of risk factors that contribute to the creation of a predisposing substrate for AF has been identified over the years. Although certain AF risk factors such as age, gender, genetic predisposition, or race are unmodifiable, controlling modifiable risk factors may represent an invaluable tool in the management of AF patients. In the recent decades, numerous studies have evaluated the mechanisms linking different risk factors to AF, but the exact degree of atrial remodeling induced by each factor remains unknown. Elucidating these mechanisms is essential for initiating personalized therapies in patients prone to develop AF. The present review aims to provide an overview of the most relevant modifiable risk factors involved in AF occurrence, with a focus on the mechanisms by which these factors lead to AF initiation and perpetuation.
1. Department of Physiopathology, University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science and Technology of Târgu Mureș, Romania
2. Department of Internal Medicine IV, University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science and Technology of Târgu Mureș, Romania
Heart failure still represents a real challenge both in everyday practice and research, due to the complex issues related to its pathogenesis and management. Humoral biomarkers have emerged in the last decades as useful tools in the diagnosis, risk stratification and guiding the treatment of heart failure. These molecules are related to different pathological and adaptive processes, like myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation and cardiac remodeling, their most widespread representatives being the natriuretic peptides (e.g. NT-proBNP). The role of altered gene expression and transcription as the basis of myocardial structural and functional changes in heart failure is largely recognized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs which have a major role in post-transcriptional gene expression by interfering with messenger RNA molecules. Our short review summarizes the molecular biology of miRNAs and their possible role as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure. Furthermore, the therapeutical perspectives conferred by these molecules are also presented.
Keywords: miRNA, biomarkers, heart failure
1. University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania
2. Department of Physical and Colloidal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”, Bucharest, Romania
Quality by Design is the methodical method to development concept that starts with the predefined objects. The method put emphasis on the process of development of a product, the control process, which is built on risk management and comprehensive knowledge of science. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (Analytical Quality by Design). Comprehension of the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) and the risk assessment for the variables that can have an impact on the productivity of the developed analytical method can be the main principles of the AQbD. Inside the method operable design region (MODR), the AQbD permits the movements of the analytical methods. This paper has been produced to discuss various views of analytical scientists, the comparison with conventional methods, and the phases of the analytical techniques.
The article highlights the fact that public health is an element of the security dimension that must be included on the priority agenda of specialists in the fields of international relations and security studies. There are arguments in favor of this theory. The costs of materializing threats to human security in general and public health, in particular, are particularly high, with serious long-term consequences. Global trends and prospects for the implications that can be generated are likely to change the world’s security landscape, and increasing global connectivity increases the degree of uncertainty about public health implications. Non-traditional issues arising from technological change can induce risks, whose management may go beyond institutional capacities. On the other hand, the new types of wars, increasingly interconnected with various forms of risk materialization, make this mission more difficult. The final conclusion is that these risks need to be assessed to ensure national, regional or even global security, and international cooperation for prevention and counseling.
1. University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mureș, Târgu Mureș, Romania
2. Pediatric Clinic 1, Emergency County Hospital Târgu Mureș, Romania
3. Pediatric Nephrology Department, Emergency Clinical Hospital for Children Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents one of the most frequent infections with bacterial etiology during childhood. In infants and toddlers with fever without source UTI’ investigation should be carried out, since signs and symptoms are nonspecific. However, obtaining uncontaminated urine samples from these patients can be challenging and time consuming; all current collection methods (clean-catch, plastic collection bag, catheterization, etc) have disadvantages. Criteria for UTI definition are represented by the presence of significant number of a single uropathogen, this number being different depending on the collection method: at least 1000 colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) for catheter samples and at least 100.000 CFU/ml from midstream clean-catch samples or 50.000 CFU/ml and significant pyuria in a symptomatic or febrile child. Accurate diagnosis of UTI is essential to avoid any antibiotic overuse and expensive investigations. UTI caused by resistant bacterial strains has an increasing prevalence in children. In pediatric population, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) represent the etiology of around 15% of UTIs. Because of limited therapeutic options the reintroduction of some old antimicrobial agents is necessary, therefore Nitrofurantoin and Fosfomycin, can represent alternatives for oral treatment and prophylaxis of UTIs in children or in case of resistance suspicion to other drug classes. It is important to recognize patients at risk, such as children with recurrent UTIs, kidney abnormalities, like vesicoureteral reflux and previous antibiotherapy, in order to recommend adequate empiric treatment, especially against resistant bacteria.
Sebastian Tranca1, Robert Szabo2, Cătălin Dache3, Mihai Mureșan3
1. “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2. Emergency County Clinical Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3. The General Aviation Inspectorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Romania
The helicopter, as a means of transport, has facilitated a significant decrease in intervention time at the site of request, increasing the chances of survival of the critical patient. Since 2003, SMURD has managed to form a fleet composed of nine helicopters and two airplanes. From an operational and strategic point of view, the SMURD intervention unit, set up seven Aeromedical Operational Bases (A.O.B.) equipped with helicopters and materials necessary for their operation. There is a dynamic increase in the number of air rescue missions in Romania, with most missions being carried out by the air rescue bases in Târgu Mureş and Bucharest. Specialty literature has clearly demonstrated the positive impact on the survival of critical patients assisted by airborne crews, so it is necessary for the Romanian air rescue system to grow up. It is necessary to increase the number of air bases, purchase new helicopters and to continue the training programs of both pilots and medical personnel.
Ioan Tilea1, Dorina Petra2, Elena Ardeleanu3, Adina Hutanu4, Andreea Varga1
1. Family Medicine, Dept. M3 – Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tirgu Mures, Romania
2. Internal Medicine I, Dept. M3 – Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tirgu Mures, Romania
3. Family Medicine, Dept. XVI – Balneology, Medical Rehabilitation and Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes” Timisoara, Romania
4. CCAMF, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tîrgu Mureș, Romania Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tîrgu Mureș, Romania
Hypertension remains one of the primary causes of premature cardiovascular mortality representing a major independent risk factor. The importance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical evaluation of hypertensive patients, beyond diagnosis, is the identification of circadian dipping/non-dipping profile. The non-dipper pattern in hypertensive and normotensive patients is associated with significant target organ damage and worse outcomes, as an increased cardiovascular risk condition. Non-dipping pattern has been found to be associated with specific clinical conditions. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, chronic kidney disease, autonomic and baroreflex dysfunctions, salt sensitivity, hormonal changes, gender and age were extensively studied. Research efforts are focused on recognizing and exploring predictive markers of abnormal blood pressure circadian pattern. Previous studies acknowledge that red cell distribution width, mean platelet volume, fibrinogen level, C-reactive protein, serum uric acid and gamma-glutamyltransferase, are independently significant and positive associated to non-dipping pattern. Moreover, research on new biomarkers are conducted: Chitinase 3-Like-Protein 1, atrial and B-type natriuretic peptide, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, chemerin, sphingomyelin and the G972R polymorphism of the insulin receptor substrate-1 gene. This review summarizes the current knowledge of different clinical conditions and biomarkers associated with the non-dipper profile in hypertensive patients.
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