Tag Archives: smoking

Dental Students’ Tobacco Smoking Habits, Second-hand Smoke Exposure, and Training in Cessation Counselling at the University of Medicine Pharmacy Sciences and Technology of Târgu Mureș

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2019-0006

Objectives: To describe tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, second-hand smoke exposure, and training in cessation counseling at the University of Medicine Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu-Mureș (UMPSTTM), as baseline data for the first Romanian university to implement a Smoke-Free University Project.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered in 2014 among dental students at UMPSTTM to explore their smoking habits, attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, exposure to second-hand smoke, interest in quitting, and their knowledge about cessation counseling. We used core questions of the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) and added specific items related to the Smoke-Free University Project. Data were analyzed by SPSS v22 software. We compared our results with those of the GHPSS Survey.
Results: 581 dental students, 73.1% of the target population (n=795), completed the questionnaire. 38.7% were current smokers. Approximately 1 in 5 (22.6%) current smokers admitted smoking inside university buildings, although 80.7% were aware of the smoking ban. 44.2% of current smokers plan to quit smoking. Nearly half of the students (48.9%) were exposed to second-hand smoke in their current homes, 78.1% in public places and 33.3% inside the university buildings. Only 21.0% of all participants received any formal training on how to help future patients quit.
Conclusions: Tobacco use prevalence was higher among future dentists than in the majority of respondents to the GHPSS. Changes in dental school education are needed to promote personal smoking cessation, as well as to educate dentists on how to support their future patients quitting.

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Relationship Between High Levels of Salivary Cotinine Test and Demographic Characteristics of Pregnant Smokers from Mures County

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2017-0008

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between the frequency of self-declared status regarding smoking in a group of pregnant women from Mures county, Romania and the high levels of Salivary Cotinine (SC) like biomarkers.
Material and methods: It was conducted a retrospective study among 230 pregnant women presented for prenatal care at 50 General Practitioners cabinets in Mures county, Romania, in 2015. Data were collected with a validated questionnaire which included age, level of education, socioeconomic status and ethnicity, also the self-reported smoking status. The Salivary Cotinine level was evaluated using NicAlert Saliva test kits.
Results: Using salivary test we identified a high prevalence of involuntary exposure to cigarette smoke among both non-smokers and those who quit smoking before pregnancy. Also we registered pregnant women that although declared smoking cessation before pregnancy their salivary Cotinine levels were high, almost like to an active smoker, probably because of second-hand exposure or because they didn’t say the truth about their habit.
Conclusions: We underline the importance of implementing more efficient community interventions among this vulnerable group in order to reduce the frequency of smoking and sustain quitting.

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The Role of Smoking in the Development of Colorectal Cancer

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2016-0046

Introduction. Smoking is an important public health issue nowadays. It causes a lot of diseases and represents also a source of carcinogenic substances. Recent studies showed an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in smokers. The aim of our study is to assess the association between smoking and colorectal cancer and to establish the prevalence of heavy smokers among the patients operated on for colorectal cancer.
Methodology. We run a retrospective study of the charts belonging to the patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and operated on in our department between 2004 and 2013. The patients were classified in smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers. The amount of tobacco was evaluated according to the number of smoked cigarettes per day, the smoking period, respectively the pack-years. The data were corroborated with the location of the tumor and analyzed using the online version of Graphpad.
Results. From 982 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, we found 297 smokers (30.24%). Among these, 106 patients (35.69%) have smoked for over 30 years, at least 20 cigarettes per day, more than 30 pack-years. The number of heavy smokers was significantly greater (p=0.0001) in the group with rectal cancer compared to the group with colon cancer. The association of smoking with rectal cancer was also important (p=0.0015) among the former smokers.
Conclusions. Smoking is related to higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Our data sustain the hypothesis of increased risk of developing rectal cancer in heavy smokers. We recommend the screening for colorectal cancer among the heavy smoker population.

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Diet, Smoking and Family History as Potential Risk Factors in Acne Vulgaris – a Community-Based Study

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2016-0007

Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of practices and attitudes towards lifestyle in adolescence as risk or protective factors, for both the acne occurrence and lesions’ severity.
Methods. A cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire was conducted during 4 months on 148 high school students, aged 16-20 years, in a high school community of Tîrgu Mureș. Acne prevalence and severity, demographic and anthropometric characteristics, the family history of acne vulgaris, smoking behavior and the weekly intake of certain food categories supposed to increase the risk of acne vulgaris were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed in terms of Odds ratio, Confidence Interval and Chi-square (p<0.05) methods.
Results. In the investigated community, acne prevalence was found of 47.30%, while 78 subjects (control group) had no facial acne lesions. In acne group: 57.1% had family history of acne, 62.9% were smokers, 22.9% were overweight or obese and 84.3% did not receive any dietary information from specialists. 41.4% were not fish consumers, while 74.3% rarely or never were eating fruits and vegetables. Statistically significant differences between the two analyzed groups were found in terms of sweets, carbonated drinks, dietary fat, white bread, fish, fruits and vegetables weekly intake.
Conclusions. Family history, smoking behavior, excessive dietary fat, sweets, carbonated drinks and white bread could be considered as risk factors in acne vulgaris. An increased weekly intake of fish, vegetables and fruits, may have a protective effect in acne development or severity.

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Smoking and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Colorectal Polyps

Purpose: Tobacco is one of the risk factors in colon cancer and colon polyps. We have studied the connection between smoking and the risk of developing the colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps.
Materials and methods: Our study refers to patients with mucosal modifications at the colon level, hospitalized and colonoscopy investigated in the 1st Clinic of Gastroenterology, Tg Mures between 2008–2010.
Results: There were 193 patients with colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps compared with 206 control patients investigated in the same hospital. From the study group, 53 patients (27.46%) were ‘current smokers’ compared with ‘control patients’ 27 patients (13.10%). As a result of this comparison there was a significant association with an increased risk for colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps (OR = 2.77, CI: 1.64–4.67). It was also observed a significant increased tendency of the risk for the colorectal polyps and colorectal cancer in parallel with the increase of the number of smoked cigarettes per day and years of cigarette smoking (< 10 cigarettes/day – OR = 1.03, CI: 0.45–2.33; 10-20 cigarettes/day – OR = 4.47, CI: 1.73–10.55; > 20 cigarettes/day – OR = 5.41, CI: 2.13–13.72 and < 10 years of cigarette smoking OR = 1.41, CI: 0.63–3.16; 10–20 years of cigarette smoking OR = 3.63, CI: 1.46-8.98; > 20 years of cigarette smoking OR = 4.43, CI: 1.83–10.74).
Conclusions: A high exposure to cigarette smoking is strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps.

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Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Developing Colorectal Cancer and Colorectal Polyps

Purpose: Among other risk factors in the developing of colorectal polyps and colorectal cancer, alcohol consumption represents a real risk factor. We have studied the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps.
Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing the medical records of all consecutive patients hospitalized with mucosal modifications at the colon level, investigated by colonoscopy in the 1st Clinic of Gastroenterology of Tîrgu Mureș between 2008 and 2011.
Results: We analyzed 324 patients with colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps, compared with 352 control patients investigated in our medical institution. We had 87 patients with colorectal cancer, out of which 1 patient was an ex-drinker, 31 were occasional drinkers and 17 regular drinkers. We found a strong positive association between alcohol consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: ex drinkers – statistically insignificant; occasional drinkers – OR = 4.04, CI: 2.31–7.06; regular drinkers – OR = 5.45, CI: 2.65–11.18. Concerning the 237 patients with colorectal polyps we obtained similar results: 5 ex-drinkers – statistically insignificant; 76 occasional drinkers – OR = 3.46, CI: 2.28–5.23; 47 regular drinkers – OR = 5.25, CI: 3.05–9.13.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that alcohol consumption elevates the risk of colorectal polyps and colorectal cancer.

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Serum Interleukin Profile in Patients with Graves Orbithopathy

DOI: 10.2478/amma-2013-0007

Background: Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is considered an autoimmune condition in close relationship with Graves’ disease (GD) affecting the thyroid. Several similarities exist between the two conditions, sharing the common antigen and the characteristics of the inflammation mediated by a number of cytokines. The result of the immune reactions will lead to the expansion of adipose tissue, production of glycosaminoglycans and soft tissue inflammation.
Material and methods: In our study we examined the serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in correlation with the activity of disease and smoking habits in 25 patients with GD and GO.
Results: We found that smokers had higher serum IL-6 and lower serum MCP-1, IL-8 and TNF-α level compared to non-smokers. Also, we found a weak positive correlation between serum IL-10, IFN-γ and disease activity (clinical activity score, CAS) and negative correlation between serum IL-1 and activity.
Conclusion: Our findings support the fact that some cytokines (IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-1) play a role in active disease, while others are influenced by environmental factors, such as smoking (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α). The discrepancy of cytokine profiles may reflect different patient characteristics, such as disease stage and disease activity and determination of serum cytokines would be useful in selecting patients who need more aggressive treatment protocols.

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Is There a Risk Factor More Responsible for Disaster?

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0054

Background: Risk factors for peripheral arterial disease are generally the same as those responsible for the ischemic heart disease and in both cases are overlapping risk factors involved in the etiology of atherosclerosis, such as smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension.
Case report: We present a case of a 61 years old male, whose ischemic peripheral symptoms began in 2003, at the age of 49, presenting as a Leriche syndrome. The patient was subjected to first revascularization procedure consisting in aortic-bifemoral grafting in the same year. General examination revealed no risk factors except smoking. Only a year after, he returns with critical right lower limb ischemia due to bypass thrombosis, therefore two thrombectomies were performed followed by a right side femoro-popliteal bypassing with Dacron prosthesis. The patient’s condition was good until 2008 when a femoro-popliteal bypass using inverted autologus saphenous vein was imposed due to occlusion of the previous graft. In 2013 the patient was readmitted to hospital with left lower limb critical ischemia. A femoro-popliteal bypass was performed, followed by two thrombectomies and the amputation of the left thigh. Up to this date, the patient kept smoking.
Discussions: Although our patient has a low/medium risk level of atherosclerosis by Framingham score and a minimum Prevent III score, all the surgical revascularization procedures were not able to avoid the amputation.
Conclusions: There are enough reasons to believe that smoking as a single risk factor can strongly influence the unfavorable progression to amputation in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

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Smoking Habits of Children Institutionalized in Family Care Homes in Mures and Harghita County

DOI: 10.1515/amma-2015-0042

Background: Smoking is a problem of the modern world and annually produces more victims, and due to ignorance and lack of health education in our country the disease diagnosis is made at an advanced stage. Many studies show that, young people aged between 10 and 18 are smokers and start smoking at an increasingly early age. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the smoking habits of institutionalized children in family care homes from Harghita and Mures county.
Methods: The method chosen was a sociological survey based on questionnaires. Our study included 254 children institutionalized in family care homes in Mures county and 254 children from Harghita county. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
Results: A statistically significant difference was obtained analyzing the number of smokers from the group of children under 12 years in Mures compared to the Harghita county. More than half of children smoked their first cigarette after they entered in family care homes in both counties and the most common setting in which the children were smoking was when being together with their friends.
Conclusions: In Mures county the number of smokers under the age of 12 was significantly higher than in Harghita county. Despite the educational classes and institutional regulations of smoking, more than half of children smoke. The decisive role in testing of smoking are the friends. Due to the very high number of underage smokers, the prevention and education hours have an unquestionable importance.

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